Katarni Rice is the most prevalent, ceremonial and finest quality scented rice landrace of Bihar, India. Like Basmati, this aromatic rice is most preferred due to its flavour, palatability and popcorn like essence before and after cooking. However, it is low yielder (25-30 Q/ha) due to its tall and week stature and lodging tendency at the time of maturity. To overcome existing problems of Katarni rice, introgression of semi-dwarfing (sd1) gene from rice variety Rajendra Sweta was attempted with the help of marker assisted back crossing and present study is emphasizing on selection of dwarf and aromatic progenies in BC1F2 and F3 generation of Katarni x R. Sweta.51 plants in BC1F2 and 31 in F3 population were selected on the basis of 1.7% KOH sensory test for aroma. The segregation ratio of non-aromatic vs. aromatic plants in 325 BC1F2 plants was 3:1 confirming the monogenic inheritance of aroma. The selection of aromatic and semi-dwarf plants in both the population was further done through the trait specific markers for these traits in rice. The semi-dwarf plant height and early maturity of selected 49 aromatic plants in BC1F2 and 25 F3 plants of Katarni x R. Sweta advocated the utilization of markers in selection of desirable segregants.
Eight Vigna and one Phaseolus species were used in the present study to estimate the contribution of component traits to the total variation. The genotypes included nine each from black gram and mungbean, three wild relatives of black gram and one mungbean, three genotypes of rice bean, five genotypes of cowpea and one genotype of french bean. The contribution of different morphological traits has been evaluated by using D2 and principal component analysis, which has led to the recognition of significant phenotypic variability. The relative contribution of root dry weight (9.952), shoot to root dry weight ratio (6.817), P content in seed (6.320), 100 seed weight (5.695), total P uptake at maturity (5.382) and seed yield/plant (5.248) was maximum towards the genetic divergence by D2 method. The seven principal components PC1, PC2, PC3, PC4, PC5, PC6 and PC7 with eigen roots of 8.721, 5.048, 3.268, 1.941, 1.155, 1.005 and 0.812, respectively have accounted for 91.46% of total variation of which first three principal components accounted for 70.98 per cent variation. PCA analysis revealed the maximum contribution of root dry weight (0.269) followed by total biological yield/plant (0.253) in PC1, harvest index (0.369) followed by 100 seed weight (0.294) in PC2 and seed yield/plant (0.384) followed by plant height (0.268) in PC3. The eigen root of first principal component accounted for 36.338 per cent of total variation followed by second to seventh principal components, which accounted for 21.035, 13.615, 8.089, 4.813, 4.189 and 3.382 per cent of total variations present in the genotypes, respectively. These results confirmed the presence of considerable genetic diversity for use in Vigna and Phaseolus genotypes improvement program. The study revealed that principal component analysis was more effective in partitioning variation than D2 analysis.
Availability of superior restorer lines is prerequisite for hybrid rice development. The present study was conducted on half-sib recombinants in F5 generation derived from the scented rice CMS line Pusa 6A, in order to isolate promising restorer lines. Fifty-one such recombinants were evaluated along with 5 check varieties in an Alpha-lattice design during 2019 and observations were recorded for 13 agro-economically important traits. Results of the phenotypic assessment of the genotypes revealed that genotypic coefficient of variance and phenotypic coefficient of variance were moderate to high for different traits used in the study, whereas environmental coefficient of variance was found to be low. The study revealed high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean for important phenotypic traits. It could be effectively used for selection of promising genotypes for better genetic gain in the next generations.
The present study was undertaken during the Kharif season of 2017, using 73 diverse indigenous genotypes of forage sorghum. The observations were recorded for 10 morphological and eight quality parameters to assess the genetic diversity. Analysis of variance revealed sufficient variability for all the traits under study. The Mahalanobis D2 analysis was carried out for estimation of divergence between genotypes and Tocher method was used for grouping of genotypes into different clusters. Genotypes were grouped into seven clusters. Cluster I had the maximum number of genotypes i.e., 45 followed by cluster II (15) and Cluster IV (9). Cluster III, V, VI, VII had only single genotype each. Inter cluster distance was observed maximum between cluster IV and cluster VII.b Cluster means for the traits under investigation showed that the genotypes in first cluster are high yielding, where genotypes IC 436522 and IC 436598 present in cluster VI and VII respectively are good for quality traits and can be further used for enhancement of yield and quality of forage sorghum.
Estimation of genetic diversity present in gene pools is an important segment for breeding programs in crops. The present study was carried out to analyse genetic diversity based on morpho-physiological and seed vigour traits using 60 genotypes of bread wheat during Rabi 2016-17. The data were recorded for yield, days to 50% heading, days to anthesis, grain growth rate (at 14, 21, 28 days), plant height, number of effective tillers, flag leaf length, width and area, spike length, spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight, harvest index, germination, seed density, seedling length and dry weight, vigour index-I, vigour index-II along with dehydrogenase activity in seeds. Based on the cluster analysis using Ward's Algorithm and Squared Euclidean Distances, genotypes were assigned into 8 clusters. The intra-cluster distance ranged from 4.942 (II) to 7.191 (VIII), and inter-cluster distance ranged from 6.035 (between II and VI) to 9.507 (between III and VIII). These values were higher than any corresponding intra-cluster values. The cluster V was the largest cluster consisting of 12 genotypes followed by cluster VI (10 genotypes), II (8 genotypes), cluster IV (8 genotypes), cluster VII (7 genotypes), cluster I (6 genotypes), cluster III (5 genotypes) and cluster VIII (4 genotypes). Cluster III showed maximum genetic divergence with cluster VIII. The cluster possessing the maximum genetic distance can be used in the hybridization program as it is expected that more heterotic F1 and more promising segregants will be produced in the segregating population. Therefore, more emphasis should be given on cluster III (P-13714, P-13717, P-13710, P-13718, and P-13743) followed by IV for selecting parents from available germplasm clusters to produce new recombinants with desired traits.
Genetic transformation and many other genome engineering processes in wheat still lags behind due to non availability of a better callus induction and regeneration systems. In the present study, an efficient embryogenic based regeneration protocol is using different combinations of plant growth hormones. The combinations of commercial bleach along with mercuric chloride reported for effective sterilization of the explants (mature embryos) used for in vitro culture. The combinations of two auxin viz., 2, 4-D and NAA were taken for an efficient callus culture for callus induction, while cytokinin viz., kinetin and BAP were used to achieve the efficient regeneration capacity of the mature explants in wheat genotypes HD3059. A significant callus induction rate was reported among the callus cultured on MS media supplemented with concentration combinations of 4.0 mg L- 1 2, 4-D, 1.0 mg L-1 NAA and 1.0 mg L-1 ABA. Similarly, the concentration combination of 2.0 mg L-1 BAP; 1.0 mg L-1 NAA gave the maximum regeneration capacity along with maximum number of shoots. Further, MS media supplemented with 1.5 mg L-1 NAA in combination with 1.0 mg L-1 IAA produced better roots in regenerated shoots. The present study would be useful in ameliorating Indian wheat cultivars and would probably get over the problems regarding developing a new plant with a modification of a targeted gene using various recent technologies such CRISPR-Cas9 and gene engineering approaches. Therefore, efficient regeneration system has been achieved in the wheat genotype HD 3059.
A field experiment was conducted at Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre of Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, laid out in split plot design (SPD) with four replications during Kharif season of 2017 to assess the effect of weed management practices and row spacing on growth and yield attributes of aerobic rice as well as density, dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake by weeds. Among row spacing, the lowest total weed density, total dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake was recorded under 25 cm row spacing. The highest weed control efficiency (73.9%) at 60 DAS, grain yield (4.2 t/ha) and B: C ratio (2.0) was achieved at row spacing of 25 cm with application of Pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha (PEm) fb Penoxsulam 22.5 g/ha (PoEm). While, 20 cm and 30 cm row spacing were significantly at par to row spacing of 25 cm, in terms of weed control efficiency, yield and B:C ratio. Row spacing of 25 cm recorded the highest number of shoots per square metre at 60 DAS and at maturity. However, among weed management practices, Pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha (PEm) fb Penoxsulam 22.5 g/ha (PoEm) recorded lowest removal of nutrients (N, P and K) by weeds, highest plant height, number of shoots per square meter and grain yield (4.4 t/ha) than other weed management treatments after weed free.
A field experiment was undertaken at Regional Agriculture Research Station, Nandyal, Andhra Pradesh for two consecutive years viz., 2018-19 and 2019-20 on rainfed vertisols to evaluate the suitable and economical method of sucker control in natu tobacco for higher cured leaf yield, leaf quality and net income. The treatments consisted of two topping stages as first factor and four sucker control methods as second factor in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The data pooled over two seasons revealed that topping stage did not significantly influence data on ground as well as auxillary suckers per plant. Significantly lower number of ground suckers per plant (1.7), fresh weight of ground suckers per plant (24.3 g), dry weight of ground suckers per plant (5.0 g), number of auxillary suckers per plant (2.5), fresh weight of ground suckers per plant (20.6 g), dry weight of ground suckers per plant (3.6 g), higher leaf length (53.7 cm), leaf width (18.3 cm), leaf area index (1.35), cured leaf yield (2213 kg ha-1), net returns (Rs 90,717 ha-1) with BCR of 2.70 were observed with application of fatty alcohol @ 5 %. Interaction of application of fatty alcohol @ 5 % at flowering stage recorded higher cured leaf yield (2282 kg ha-1). Different treatments did not influence leaf chemical constituents (nicotine, reducing sugars and chlorides) and are in permissible limits.
A field experiment was undertaken at Regional Agriculture Research Station, Nandyal, Andhra Pradesh during 2018-20 on rainfed vertisols to study the effect of different planting geometry, fertilizer levels on seed and oil yield in different bidi tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) varieties. The treatments consisted of two planting geometry (75 cm x 75 cm and 60 cm x 60cm) as first factor, two fertilizer levels (100 % RDF - 110 N+70 P2 O5 +50 K2 O kg ha-1and 150 % RDF-165 N+105 P2 O5 +75 K2 O kg ha-1) as second factor and three bidi tobacco varieties (A119, Nandyal Pogaku-1 and ABD 132) as third factor tested in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. Two years pooled data revealed that significantly higher seed yield (444 kg ha-1), oil yield (143.3 kg ha-1), cured leaf yield (2023 kg ha-1), lower leaf length (34.0 cm), leaf width (13.6 cm) and capsules per plant (547) were observed with plant geometry of 60 cm x 60 cm. Higher seed yield (446 kg ha-1), oil yield (141.9 kg ha-1), leaf length (37.1 cm), leaf width (15.4 cm) and cured leaf yield (2078 kg ha-1), capsules per plant (647) were recorded with application of 150% Recommended Dose of Fertilisers (RDF) (165 N+105 P2 O5 +75 K2 O kg ha-1) than 100% RDF. Significantly higher seed yield (459 kg ha-1) and oil yield (148.1 kg ha-1) were recorded with A119 than Nandyal Pogaku 1 and ABD 132. ABD 132 recorded higher plant height (146.3 cm), leaf length (37.5 cm), leaf width (15.9 cm) and cured leaf yield (2116 kg ha-1). Higher number of capsules per plant (675) was observed in Nandyal pogaku 1. A119 recorded higher seed yield (532 kg ha-1) and oil yield (173.4 kgha-1) when planted at 60 cm x 60 cm with application of 150% RDF (165 N+105 P2 O 5 +75 K2 O ha-1). ABD 132 recorded lower seed yield (229 kg ha-1) and oil yield (72.1 kg ha-1) when planted at 75 cm x 75 cm with application of 100% RDF (110 N+70 P2 O 5 +50 K2O ha-1). The levels of plant geometry and fertilizer levels had non-significant effect on leaf chemical constituents.
The present study was carried out to bring the realistic nature of modeling variables, using non-linear regression approach on area and production of sugarcane in Uttar Pradesh, using the secondary data of area and production from1980 to 2017. Six different methods of nonlinear regression models as Logistic, Power, Sinusoidal, Richards, Rational and Ratkowsky were used. Levenberg-Marquardt technique was used to estimate the unknown parameters of the nonlinear regression models. To select a best fitted model by using , RMSE, MAE, and residual assumption tests such as Run test, Shapiro-Wilks test were carried out. For area, production and productivity it was found that Rational model had the highest values i.e. (85 per cent, 83 per cent, 75 per cent) and lowest RMSE (84.4, 9992.7, 3546.4). Hence, Rational model is the most suitable among the fitted nonlinear model which can be used for further trend analysis of sugarcane in Uttar Pradesh.
True cinnamon is an ancient, perennial spice grown for its sweet aromatic barks and is known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. However, cinnamon in trade is adulterated with barks of other species, some of which are known to have potentially harmful coumarins. The agro-climatic conditions of Andaman Islands are highly suitable for cultivation of this important spice. However, cinnamon is grown mostly in backyards, while few commercial plantations do exist in these islands. In order to promote cultivation of this spice, introduction of improved varieties is important and hence, morphological and biochemical studies were carried out in five improved varieties and Local check (control) in open condition. Results revealed considerable differences among the genotypes for morphological and biochemical parameters. Total chlorophyll content ranged between 0.67 and 1.08 mg/g, while variations were also noticed within the studied varieties for essential oil content (0.4- 2.0%), oleoresin content (7.8- 11.5%), leaf total phenolic content (18.7- 27.9 mg GAE/100g), bark total phenolic content (30.4- 60.3 mg GAE/ 100g), dry recovery of leaf (46.5- 66.7%), leaf moisture content (46.2- 58.6%) and dry recovery of bark (31.31- 45.92%). Variety Konkan Tej was found to be superior for cultivation under open condition in Bay Islands. Considering performance of 'Local' collection for leaf morphological parameters, bark recovery (%) and dry bark yield, seedling progenies in the islands could be utilized for identification of superior genotypes.
The change in precipitation pattern and temperature directly and indirectly affect the weather dependent agriculture sector. So, this study assessed the effect of rainfall and temperature variability on the mean and variance of rice yield in Meghalaya by using Just & Pope model. The state received fairly good amount of rainfall during rice growing season but the minimum and maximum temperatures have increased during 1975-2007. Average monsoon maximum temperature has positive and significant effect on the mean yield of kharif rice. The significant effect of the squared term of monsoon minimum temperature, and the interaction term of monsoon minimum and monsoon maximum temperature implies their non-linear effect on the mean yield of kharif rice. The variance function reveals that the climatic parameters along with time trend are risk decreasing factors but only time trend is statistically significant.
This work was carried out on ductus deferens reproductive system of 54 apparently healthy male guinea fowl (Pearl variety) at different age groups from Day old, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28 weeks at monthly intervals. The ductus deferens was paired extended from caudal end of epididymis to opening of urodeum. The convolutions first appeared from 20 weeks from caudal to cranial end. Morphometrical studies revealed that the weight of right and left ductus deferens of guinea fowl increased from 4 to 28 weeks of age. The length of right and left ductus deferens increased gradually from 2 weeks to 28 weeks and the width of right and left ductus deferens of guinea fowl increased significantly (p<0.05) from 8 to 28 weeks of age.
Gastrointestinal tracts of five goats were examined to know the diversity of gastrointestinal nematodes in Rewa, Madhya Pradesh. The species encountered in the region were Haemonchus contortus, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Oesophagostomum aspersum and Trichuris. Among these H. contortus and O. columbianum were more prevalent. In Haemonchus females, button shaped vulval flap was more common than tongue shaped. This seems to be the first report of O. aspersum from goats in Central India. The identification and differential features of O. aspersum and O. columbianum have been discussed in the present report.
A case of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia was observed in 7 year old male Spitz dog brought to TVCC Pantnagar with the history of anorexia, lethargy and weakness. There was no history of previous infection and tick infestation. Vaccination and deworming were proper in schedule. On clinical examination the pale mucus membranes were seen with an increased pulse and respiration rates and normal rectal temperature. There was no hemoprotozoan parasite on examination of blood smear and no parasitic eggs, cyst or oocyst found in faecal samples. Collected blood was slightly agglutinated. Blood picture revealed spherocytosis, agglutination of RBCs and hyper segmented neutrophils. It was diagnosed to be a case of idiopathic autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Animal was treated with infusion DNS 5% slow intravenously on day first then repeated after 4th day, injection Prednisolone @ 0.5 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly repeated on alternate days for 2 weeks, injection Imferon @ 0.5 ml intramuscularly on alternate days for 2 weeks, tablet Doxycycline @ 100 mg twice a day orally for 2 weeks. Other supportive therapy given were Iron supplement (aRBCe pet) @ 3 ml orally once daily for 2 weeks, multivitamin syrup (Zipvit) @ 3ml orally once daily for 2 weeks and liver tonic (Livotas pet) @ 3ml twice a day orally for 2 weeks was given. The animal died after 2 weeks of treatment.
An 8 year old cross bred female cow weighing about 250 kg was admitted to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pantnagar with the history of anorexia, reduced water intake, progressive weakness, high fever, shivering, tachycardia, laboured breathing and respiratory distress since 7-8 days. Animal was dehydrated and week. Physiological parameters like rectal temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were found to be 104.6 degree F, 89 beats/ minute and 49/minute, respectively. Peripheral blood smear examination revealed the presence of Anaplasma marginale on the margin of erythrocytes. Faecal examination revealed presence of eggs of Fasciola spp. On the basis of these findings, the condition was diagnosed as erythrocytic bovine anaplasmosis and the case was treated with two doses of Oxytetracycline @ 10 mg/kg body weight intravenous in NSS, Meloxicam @0.5 mg/kg body weight I/M and Triclabendazole@ 12 mg/kg orally once. Improvement was noticed after 3 days of treatment.
The current study deals with the modification of Pant-ICAR controlled traffic deep fertilizer applicator-cum-crop seeder as a multi-crop seeder-cum-deep placement of fertilizers applicator for multiple crops (Maize, paddy, soybean, pigeon pea and pea) grown in Uttarakhand. The Pant-ICAR controlled traffic deep fertilizer applicator-cum-crop seeder is converted to a multi-crop seeder-cum-fertilizer applicator. The modified machine was evaluated for maize, paddy, soybean, pigeon pea and pea in the laboratory at two gear ratios (5.73:1 and 6.23:1), four hopper heights (70, 80, 90, 100 and 110 mm) and the location of PVC adjusting fertilizer sleeve (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mm) with roller type metering mechanism and conical seed tube was used for the study. The adjustable PVC sleeve position was provided for changing the rate for a particular seed and their recommended fertilizer rate. The machine has been modified and the results of the laboratory study are presented in this paper. PVC sleeve was incorporated for more effective height for precise application of fertilizer at a particular setting. The settings to get the desired seed and matching fertilizer rates for different crops were found very user-friendly.
This study was conducted to investigate the drying characteristics of shrimp (Metapenaeus dobsoni) in an electrical dryer. Initial moisture content of shrimps was decreased from 73-79% (wb) to 8-10% (wb) final moisture in 8 h. Drying was performed at drying air temperature and air velocity of 55+-2 degree C and 0.8+-0.04 m/s respectively, and drying parameters were recorded at 1 h interval. Drying rate was found to be reduced with drying time and drying followed the falling rate drying period. Drying characteristics curves were plotted and various drying models were fitted to describe drying kinetics of shrimps. Drying models suitability was analysed based on higher coefficient of determination value (R2), lower root mean square error and reduced chi-square values (?2). Midilli model was selected as the best fit model with highest R2 (0.999), lowest ?2 (0.00002) and root mean square error (0.004) values. Results proved that hot air drying using electrical dryer has many advantages over sun drying like better control over drying temperature and moisture content, uniformity in drying and less drying time.
This paper describes the importance of flood mapping in terms of saving downstream agricultural land. Flood can cause high impact on the productivity of nearby crops which further affects the country's economy. The Baur dam is situated in Udham Singh Nagar district of Uttarakhand State of India. It has a Culturable Command Area of 65.72 km2 for Uttarakhand and 314.53 km2 for Uttar Pradesh state. Present study key focus is on describing the importance of Manning's roughness value in dam breach analysis. In this work hypothetical breach modelling of Baur dam is performed by using Hydrologic Engineer's Centre- River Analysis System (HEC-RAS 5.0.3) model. Details about study area, breach parameters, modelling procedure, and outflow flood values are also described. Flow hydrographs are plotted at different Manning's roughness value for the populated downstream areas of dam and it has been observed from the results that as roughness value increases, flow decreases which justifies Manning's theory. Inundation maps with varying Manning's values are plotted. The Manning's roughness value of 0.030 leads to 37.75 km2 inundated area in the downstream of dam.
Constipation is the most common gastrointestinal disorder worldwide. A cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey was carried out to measure the prevalence and determinants of constipation among hostel residing female students. Randomly selected 200 female students (20-30 years) residing in the university hostels of Pantnagar were interviewed to assess the prevalence of constipation. A pre-tested, structured questionnaire was used to collect information on stool-type, anthropometric profile, dietary habits, defecation pattern, physical activity, and general information. The data were presented in percentages; chi-square analysis and rate ratio were calculated to analyse the association between dependent and independent variables. The result showed that the prevalence of constipation was 20.5% among the subjects, as evaluated by the Bristol stool form scale. The prevalence of mild to severe diarrhoea was reported to be 22% among the subjects. Constipation was found to be significantly associated with body mass index, waist to hip ratio, physical activity, dietary fibre, meal skipping, water intake, and eating out frequency. It was found that the risk of constipation was thrice in overweight and obese subjects than underweight and normal subjects. The water intake of fewer than 1.5 litres per day increased the risk of constipation nine times among subjects. Lower dietary fibre intake increased the risk of constipation by thirteen times. The study concluded that less dietary fibre intake, less fluid intake, fast food consumption, meal skipping, higher waist to hip ratio, higher body mass index, and sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of constipation among the hostel residing female students.
The city of Lucknow is considered the hub of chikankari in Uttar Pradesh. Families are involved in this craft since generation and inherit a skill ancestrally. Awkward posture during work makes the task more physically demanding and increases the risk of injury. The present study was planned to assess the work- related musculoskeletal disorder faced by chikankai workers. Twenty home based and twenty centre based chikankari workers were selected from purposively selected chicken prominent area i.e., kakori, Banarsi Tola, Sikrauri, Daliganj and centre i.e., A.K. Chikan Industry Chowk, Sewa NGO Sitapur Road, nath Chikan Sitapur Road, Shyam Chikan industry Cantt. Data was collected by using NORDIC musculoskeletal questionnaire developed by Kuorinka et al. (1987) and validated by Dickinon et al. (1992) and Chaffin and Anderson(1991). Analysis of data reveals that 50.00 per cent respondents were not known to any kind of musculoskeletal pain/discomfort but prevent them self or stay away from normal activities due to such kind of pain/discomfort. Self Reported prevalence of musculoskeletal pain /discomfort was reported by highest percentage of centre based workers as compare to home based workers. During last twelve month pain lasting for 12 hour was reported highest for lower back (67.50 per cent), followed by wrist/hand (57.50 per cent), both elbow (55.00 per cent), both shoulder (52.50 per cent) and knees (52.50 per cent). During last one month pain lasting for 12 hour was reported highest for upper back (62.00 per cent) followed by lower back (57.50 per cent), both shoulder (55.00 per cent) and both wrist/hand (50.00 per cent). During last seven days pain lasting for 12 hours was reported highest for lower back (65.00 per cent) followed by both shoulder(62.50 per cent), upper back(60.00 per cent) and both elbow (50.00 per cent). About half of the respondent first notice the problem while work. Majority of them were taking treatment for forearm pain (100.00 per cent), palm pain (62.50 per cent), headache (62.50 per cent), shoulder pain (55.00 per cent) and body ache (50.00 per cent).
Agriculture sector as a whole has developed and emerged with the infusion of science and technology. Women play a crucial role in agricultural development and allied fields. The extent of women's active involvement in agriculture varies greatly from region to region. It is also estimated that 45.3% of the agricultural labour force consists of women, but a large number of women have remained as invisible workers. This study focuses on impact of farm women groups on groundnut cultivation. The sampling design followed was simple random sampling. Sample of 240 Farm women was interviewed, 180 from member of Farm Women Group (FWG) and 60 from Non-member Farm Women. It was observed that well trained women were aware of loss in productivity. The improved groundnut production technology gave 38 per cent higher yield, generated 71 per cent more income and reduced unit cost by 16 per cent. Farm women from groups follow proper way of doing the activities required while adopting technology and at proper time as they remained focused compared to men. The reason for non adoption by other women was lack of awareness and knowledge compared to trained women.
The city of Lucknow has a prominent place in the history of India particularly for its art, historical monuments and rich cultural heritage. Lucknow is also known around the world over for its many fine handicrafts prominently for chikankari and considered to be the hub of chikankari embroidery. A study was conducted on 60 home based and 60 centre based chikankari workers of Lucknow city. Descriptive cum experimental research design and multistage random sampling technique was used. Socio economic status, working condition, environmental condition, angle of deviation and grip strength was measured. Results of the study reveal that more than fifty per cent home based and centre based workers were from poor socio economic status and 33.34 per cent from very poor on below poverty line. Majority were having 16-20 years experience and earnings Rs. 5000 per month. They work for 7-8 hours a day for all the 7 days in a week with only 1or 2 rest interval of 15-30 min. Temperature of work place was more whereas humidity and light was less than the recommended value. Deviation in angle of back was higher in upper back of both home and centre based workers but degree of deviation was more in the back of centre based workers. Change in grip strength was higher in the both hands of home based and centre based workers but comparatively it was more in home based workers. This ultimately leads to health hazard among works.
A study on IATKs commonly practiced related to the management of common pests and diseases of major crops followed by the farmers of Jorhat district, Assam, was under taken. The aim of the study was to create a database on common IATKs, to determine the effectiveness of identified IATKs as perceived by farmers and also to determine the scientific rationality of the identified IATKs as perceived by Agricultural Scientists. Both pre-tested structured schedules as well as questionnaire were used to collect data from field level and institutional level, respectively. It revealed that in rice, studied, 32 number of IATKs were targeted against major insect pests like stem borer, rice hispa, gundhi-bug, case-worm, rodents and birds and only 3 numbers were found to be used against the diseases like brown spot, blast and bacterial leaf blight. In case of stored grains pests of rice and pulse, only three numbers of IATK were predominantly used. Whereas in potato, brinjal, cucurbits, tomato, chilli and cole crops 4, 3, 3, 2, 1 and 1 numbers of practices, respectively were recorded to be used against different common pest and diseases.
Television is a versatile technological tool used by the students for multiple purposes viz., disseminating information, education and entertainment. Considering its importance, an exploratory study was carried out with 200 agricultural students selected from three constituents' colleges of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar through proportionate random sampling method using structured interview schedule. Empirical data were tabulated and analyzed with the help of appropriate statistical tools by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings of the study revealed that majority of the students (53.28%) watched television daily for '31min-1 h per day'. Moreover, most of the students (82.50%) watched television for entertainment purpose compared to academic and professional purpose. Study also revealed that age, education, medium of schooling, schooling, parental income, family education, scientism, job preference, annual expenditure, mass media exposure, information seeking behavior and risk orientation had positive and significant correlation with their television viewing pattern at 0.05 level of probability.
With the commercialization of agriculture, the importance of cash crops has increased. India has the largest area under cotton cultivation and ranks third in terms of production in the world. There is a wide gap between the attainable potential yield and the actual yield obtained by the farmers which need to be bridged. In Haryana, cotton is mainly grown in Sirsa, Hisar, Fatehabad, Jind and Bhiwani districts of the state. The transfer of improved technology and their effective adoption is influenced by the method of its transfer to the farmers in accordance to their need. The media is playing an important role in passing on meaningful information at faster rate to the large number of farmers in country. It has emerged as one of the significant sources of seeking relevant scientific information by the farm families, therefore, tapping and utilizing the potential of media for transferring the newly generated technologies, information regarding weather and marketing in agriculture among the farm families is crucial and significant. Electronic media can play a vital role in developing/preparing information rich farmers for situations of urgency and emergency. The present study was conducted in Haryana state in the year 2015-16. For the standardization of media content developed, 30 judges were selected from Hisar, Sirsa and Fatehabad districts were selected purposively. Standard procedure for development of media was followed. Effectiveness of Compact Disc (CD) and booklet in terms of audio quality, video quality, presentation of message, content importance and suitability and text was rated as high. Inter consistency reliability for CD and booklet was found to be statistically significant at 5 per cent level of significance. Field applicability was also found to be high for all the messages.
Understanding a learner in an online environment can ensure success of an online course. The present study determines learning behavior and learning pattern among learners on the MOOC platform established for running an online course offered at ICAR-National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (NAARM), Hyderabad, India. The demographic description and significant difference between learning patterns of the learners on MOOC according to their subject domain were analyzed by using Moodle LMS (Learning Management System). The learner group was found to comprise in majority as males or doctorate degree holders and from agriculture domain. Most of the learners were found to be passive who were frequently engaging in the course in terms of learning behavior which indicates their way of participating in the course. Majority of the learners had moderate interest and seriousness to learn the subject. With regard to course participation which is measured in course log-in patterns, learners with subject domains like Engineering and Agribusiness Management and Agriculture and Veterinary streams had similarity in course participation. Among the weekly participation, there was a significant increase in course participation towards course ending irrespective of subject domains which indicates the participants' urge to complete the course for certification. The key observations found through the study can be of paramount importance in designing a successful MOOC with better completion rates.