Maize is genetically different from its wild species teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) for various traits since maize has undergone domestication process over 10,000 years ago in the Balsas river valley of Mexico. But some major traits namely plant architecture have seen domestication syndrome which created significant differences between modern maize and its wild progenitor teosinte. It is assumed that some genes/allelic form for plant architecture, particularly for leaf angle, were probably lost during maize domestication and selective breeding. Several reports claim that teosinte have diverse and novel alleles for plant architecture which were absent in modern maize. Plant architecture determines plants canopy, light harvesting capacity and water and nutrient use efficiency. We investigated BC1 F2 population derived from maize×teosinte cross. The population was subjected to phenotypic evaluation for Leaf Angle (LA), Flag Leaf Length (FLL) and Flag Leaf Width (FLW). Investigation indicates wide variability for LA, FLL and FLW in BC1 F2 generation. Based on the data and analysis, 305 lines were grouped into different categories based on range of values. Out of 305 BC1 F2 plants, 216 plants showed >450 leaf angle and 89 plants had had <450, and for flag leaf length and width 305 BC1F2 plants showed differential behaviour. The investigation results indicate that teosinte has great significance in broadening and diversification of genetic base of maize germplasm. Further there is enough probability of incorporating erect leaves habit in maize by using teosinte as donor parent that may ultimately help in accommodating more plants per unit area for increasing production and productivity of maize.
The current study aimed to assess the impact of GA3 and NAA at various concentrations on seed germination and seedling growth in kilmora. Seven treatments and three replications made up the experiment’s randomised block design. Regarding improving seed germination, plant height, and the number of leaves per plant, the kilmora seed treated with GA3 at 75 ppm was the most successful treatment compared to other treatments.
This study was carried out in Akoko Edo Local Government of Edo State to identify some of the major soils of the project area, through a geographic information system (GIS) and soil survey. Considering the active soil forming factors in the Local Government, five mapping units were delineated and representative pedons were studied, described and sampled. Soil samples were analyzed using standard methods. Soils were classified according to both USDA soil taxonomy and WRB Systems of Soil Classification. The results showed that Pedon 1 was classified according to USDA soil taxonomy as Loamy Kaolinitic Isohyperthemic Fluventic Humic Dystrudept while according to WRB, it was classified as Haplic Fluvic Cambisol (Dystric, Humic) with an aerial coverage of 560.6 ha (0.4%). Pedon 2 occupied an area of 52,715.3 ha (40.7%) and was classified according to USDA soil taxonomy as Loamy Kaolinitic Isohyperthemic Fluvaquentic Dystrudept and Haplic Fluvic Cambisol (Siltic, Greyic) according to WRB system of soil classification. Pedon 3 occupied an area of 67,189.4 ha (51.8%) was classified as Loamy kaolinitic Isohyperthemic Fluventic Dystrudept according to USDA while WRB classified it as Haplic Fluvic Cambisol (Dystric). Pedon 4 was classified according to USDA soil taxonomy as Loamy Kaolinitic Isohyperthemic Oxyaquic Eutrudept while WRB classified it as Haplic Endogleyic Cambisol (Gleyic Oxyaquic). It occupies an aerial of 8,447.3 ha (6.5%). Pedon 5 on the other hand, occupying an area of 734.2 ha (0.6 %) was classified according to USDA soil taxonomy as Loamy kaolinitic Isohyperthemic Humic dystrudept and Haplic, Fluvic Cambisols (Dystric, Humic) according to WRB system of classification. This research will therefore unveil the different types of soils in the area as well as the aerial extent of each soil type.
A field trial was conducted for the study of insect pests and associated natural enemies in foothill basmati rice during the kharif season of 2020 and 2021 at Kotabagh Block in Nainital District, Uttarakhand. Eleven insect species belonging to six different orders, including Homoptera (white-backed plant hopper, green leaf hopper and brown plant hopper), Lepidoptera (leaf folder, yellow stem borer), Coleoptera (rice hispa), Orthoptera and Hemiptera (heteroptera) rice gundhi bug and rice grasshopper were revealed during the study period to be associated with basmati rice in this Kotabagh block District Nainital, Uttarakhand region. Coccinellids, Hemipterans, Coleopterans, damsel flies, dragon flies and carabid beetles were identified as natural enemies in the rice agro-ecosystem
The present investigation facilitated to witness a total of seventeen species of insects that have been damaging (pests) and protecting (natural enemies) the cabbage crop at different villages of Udham Singh Nagar during Rabi 2020. Out of these, five species of defoliators, viz., Spodoptera litura, Helicoverpa armigera, Plutella xylostella, Phyllotreta cruciferae and Attractomorpha similis and one sucking pest, i.e., Brevicoryne brassicae (aphid) were recorded to cause noticeable damage to the crop. Among the various insect pests of cabbage S. litura, B. brassicae and H. armigera were more in numbers and had relatively higher abundance as compared to other species and hence considered the major pest of economic importance. Considering the pest complex of cabbage in the present study the order Lepidoptera occupied the largest number of species followed by Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Orthoptera.
An investigation was carried out to study the population dynamics of some cabbage pests, viz., cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae), tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura) and gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) and the effect of weather parameters on them at Vegetable Research Centre of Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar during Rabi 2020. During the crop season aphid population marked its appearance in the 46th MSW (2nd week of November) with 1.05 aphids per plant, which progressively touched its peak in the 2nd MSW (2nd week of January) with 111.97 aphids per plant. Tobacco caterpillar and Gram-pod borer were both recorded first time in the 47th MSW (0.46 and 0.39 larvae/ plant, respectively) that gradually reached its peak in the 4th MSW (2.96 and 2.64 larvae/plant, respectively). Correlation studies revealed that aphid population was positively affected by morning and evening humidity (r = 0.778 and 0.853, respectively), wind velocity (r = 0.607) and rainfall (r = 0.277) whereas a negative impact was observed with minimum and maximum temperature, i.e., r = -0.527 and -0.832, evaporation and sunshine hours (r = -0.702). In case of Tobacco caterpillar rainfall (r = 0.303), wind velocity (r = 0.369) and morning relative humidity (r = 0.813) had a positive correlation with the pest population whereas minimum temperature (r = -0.588), maximum temperature (r = -0.802), evaporation (r = -0.658) and sunshine hours (r = -0.677) have had a negative correlation. Gram-pod borer population was positively associated with morning relative humidity (r = 0.825), evening relative humidity (r = 0.771), wind velocity (r = 0.381) and rainfall (r = 0.344) whereas maximum temperature (r = -0.768), minimum temperature (r = -0.556), evaporation (r = -0.627) and sunshine hours (r = -0.647) were in a negative correlation.
Experiments were conducted to study the long- term bio-efficacy and fumigant toxicity of nineteen essential oils of Curcuma longa, Cymbopogon flexuous, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Ferula asafoetida, Lavandula angustifolia, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mentha cardiaca, Mentha citrata, Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Pelargonium graveolens, Pinus roxburghii, Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis and Tanacetum cinerariifolium against Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton), Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) and Callosobruchus chinensis (Linnaeus) at the concentration of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 per cent (v/w). The study revealed that all the essential oils were highly effective against target insect pests of stored grains and they can be utilized for its protection. The essential oils of M. arvensis, F. asafoetida and L. angustifolia were highly effective against C. cephalonica at all the concentrations. The oils of M. arvensis, M. spicata, M. piperita, C. winterianus, T. cinerariifolium, O. basilicum and L. alba were also highly effective against S. cerealella. All the essential oils showed high efficacy against C. chinensis at all concentration as they caused 100 per cent mortality of it. The fumigant toxicity of some oils persisted for 263, 234 and 175 days against C. cephalonica, S. cerealella and C. chinensis, respectively. The findings suggest that all these essential oils may be exploited to prevent the post-harvest infestation of stored grains
The experiments were conducted to study the long-term efficacy of essential oils of Curcuma longa and Pinus roxburghii at 0.2 and 0.4 per cent along with their combinations at 0.2+0.2 and 0.1 +0.1per cent each against three major insect pests of stored grains, Sitophilus oryzae, Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum. The wheat grain artificially infested by these insects were fumigated by abovementioned formulations on 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th days of infestation. The observations on population buildup of test insects were recorded after6- and 8-monthsstorage while percent infestation and per cent weight loss of grain was recorded after 10 months storage. The study revealed that the herbal fumigants having essential oil of C. longa or P. roxburghii oil at 0.4 per cent or C. longa + P. roxburghii at 0.2 per cent each or P. roxburghii at 0.2 per cent were highly effective against S. oryzae because no adults emerged from these treatments even when grains were fumigated on 20th days of artificial infestation by this insect. On the other hand, all the herbal fumigants were highly effective against R. dominica for more than 8 months when they were used for fumigation on 5, 10, 15 and 20 days of artificial infestation. In case of T. castaneum, C. longa oil was not very effective at 0.2-0.4 per cent against this insect. However, the combinations of C. longa+ P. roxburghii completely checked the progeny production for more than 8 months at 0.1+0.1 and 0.2+0.2per cent. The study revealed that the herbal fumigant having essential oil of C. longa and P. roxburghii in equal proportion is highly effective against all three major insect pests of stored cereals at lowest dose of 0.2 percent. Due to very high efficacy for 10 months and low cost of treatment, it may be used for protection of cereal grain or seed stored in airtight containers
Finger millet is one of the most important small millet crops grown in large areas of the developing world especially in Africa and Asia. The aim of this study was to characterize 114 finger millet genotypes for their morpho-metric traits, seed quality parameters and against important endemic diseases affecting the yield in mid hills of Uttarakhand. One hundred and fourteen germplasm lines of finger millet including two checks viz., PRM-1, PRM-2 were planted in augmented design with 1.0 m row length. Observations were recorded for morpho-metric traits, disease incidence and seed quality parameters. The studied qualitative traits showed significant variation among tested germplasm. A wide variation was recorded in plant height among 114 finger millet germplasm that ranged from 58.41 cm to 134.74 cm. Days to maturity ranged from 126.16 days to 161.63 days across the germplasm. Seed yield of randomly selected five plants and 1000- seed weight exhibited appreciable variation in the experimental materials that ranged from 6.61 g to 97.83 g and 1.20 g to 3.20 g, respectively. Significant variation was recorded in seed quality traits also. Seed vigour index-I and II showed substantial variation with a range of 701.53 to 1530.57 and 0.47 to 8.24 respectively, and first count and standard germination percent of seed also showed noticeable variation with a range of 32.75 % to 61.50 % and 60.00 % to 96.00 %, respectively which might be due to genetic makeup of germplasm and prevailing environmental conditions of the experimental site. Out of 114 germplasm, two lines viz., IC-587952 and IC-476936 were identified as immune for all the screened endemic diseases. Thirty-two germplasm lines reported to be resistant and thirty-five germplasm lines showed moderate resistant to leaf blast disease while seventeen germplasm lines showed resistant to neck blast disease. From the present investigation, two germplasm viz., IC-587952 and IC-476936 were identified for higher seed yield along with early maturity as well as resistant to all the important endemic finger millet diseases. These two identified germplasm lines from the bulk are of immense value and may be used in further breeding programme.
Today’s changing lifestyles and demand for junk or ready-to-eat meals lead to micronutrient deficiency, which affects cognitive and physical development. To minimize micronutrient deficiency, the substitution of meals with plant-based byproducts can be beneficial. In the present investigation, partial substitution of potato developed four tikki formulations with fresh pea shells to evaluate the effect on the sensory and nutritional properties of the product. The fibrous coat of pea pods turned into eliminated and the digestive layer was further used for adding tikki at 10, 20 and 30% levels. The study result showed that the sensorial properties of tikki were influenced by the addition of fresh pea shells and increasing the nutritional quality. The nutritional parameters showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in protein (3.57 to 4.14 gm/100gm), crude fiber (0.88 to 1.47 gm/100gm), dietary fiber (1.56 to 2.35 gm/100gm) content of value-added tikki and a significant increased in mineral content like magnesium (46.61 to 85.93 mg/100gm) and calcium (23.33 to 54.52 mg/100gm), which increased twice compared to control. From the present investigation, we concluded that value-added tikki with the digestive fibrous coat of pea shells provides an appreciable amount of nutrients and an improved nutritional profile.
Nutritional status is the balance between the intake of nutrients by an organism and the expenditure of these in growth, reproduction, and health maintenance. Nutritional anthropometry and dietary recall method were used to obtain information on the nutritional status of the people aged 18-65 years. The study was conducted in the month of March 2022 with the sample size of 266 adults. Information on age and gender was collected from the respondents. Stadiometer and weighing balance were used for measuring the height and weight of the subjects who were classified according to Asian BMI classification (WHO, 2000). To cross-check the data obtained from anthropometry, dietary intake of a representative sample of 28 women was collected using one day 24-hour dietary recall method. The average BMI for the total population was reported to be 23.9, indicating that the subjects fell in the category of overweight. The study of dietary intake of the selected respondents indicated that the intake of calories, protein, iron, calcium, and dietary fiber was below the recommended levels. In contrast, carbohydrate and fat intake were found to be above recommended daily nutrient intake. The results of the study indicate that on the basis of anthropometry, the nutritional status of the respondents emerges as overweight and the results of the dietary assessment show an imbalance in the nutritional intake. Thus, both nutritional assessment techniques are essential for evaluating the nutritional status of populations
The present investigation was carried on crossbred cattle maintained at Instructional Dairy Farm, Nagla of G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. The study was conducted on 700 crossbred cattle, progeny of 68 sires which were born over a period of 28 years from 1990-2017. The sires were evaluated for first lactation traits namely Age at First Calving (AFC), First Lactation Milk Yield (FLMY), First Lactation Period (FLP), First Dry Period (FDP), First Calving Interval (FCI), First Service Period (FSP) and First Lactation 305 Day Milk Yield (FL305DMY) on the basis of analysed breeding value using univariate animal model i.e., BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction). Of late, the sires having different level of exotic inheritance were ranked on the basis of estimated breeding value. The average value of AFC, FLMY, FLP, FDP, FCI, FSP and FL305DMY observed in the present study were 1180.53 days, 2861.30 kg, 326.14 days, 124.15 days, 450.56 days, 261.33 days and 2615.9 kg, respectively. The minimum and maximum breeding values estimated for the respective traits were 1111.48 to 1245.82 days for AFC, 2530.32 to 3282.84 kg for FLMY, 301.86 to 345.44 kg for FLP, 104.49 to 145.62 days for FDP, 421.91 to 476.10 days for FCI, 248.79 to 268.88 days for FSP and 2392.69 to 2939.84 kg for FL305DMY. Taken into consideration the estimated average breeding value of different sires, the crossbred bulls were ranked for different first lactation traits and top ten sires according to traits of interest were recommended for selection and utilization in improvement programmes.
Beta Lactoglobulin (β-Lg) is a major whey protein found in ruminant milk. This protein is found in various polymorphic forms some of which have been reported to bear a significant association with certain superior economic traits. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to detect polymorphism in β-Lg at the genic level. A total of 145 animals belonging to Sahiwal and crossbred were covered under the present investigation. DNA was extracted from the blood and was used to amplify a 398 bp fragment of β-Lg gene using polymerase chain reaction. The amplified fragment was subsequently digested using Hae III restriction enzyme. The restriction pattern so obtained was analyzed using 4% (w/v) agarose gel electrophoresis and was then visualized under UV transilluminator after staining with ethidium bromide. Three types of restriction patterns were seen in cattle. Genotype AA showed three (162, 137 and 99 bp long) fragments, genotype BB showed five (113, 99, 89, 73 and 24 bp long) fragments, while AB showed all seven (162, 137, 113, 99, 89, 73 and 24 bp long) fragments. Comparison with available database suggests that two of the restriction sites (at position 89 and 275) are polymorphic i.e., found in B but absent in A. Based on these observations genotypic frequencies of AA, AB and BB were found to be 0.43, 0.26 and 0.31 in Sahiwal and 0.44, 0.36 and 0.20 in crossbred, respectively. The allele frequencies of A and B were calculated from the genotypic frequencies and were found to be 0.56 and 0.44 in Sahiwal and 0.62 and 0.38 in crossbred cattle. The Analysis of variance and Chi-square test revealed no significant association between genotype and three lactation average milk productions in Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. AA genotype was found to produce more milk compared to other genotypes in Sahiwal and BB in crossbred. From the present investigation it can be concluded that polymorphism of β-Lg gene occurs in Sahiwal breed of cattle and has no significant role in milk yield.
Data for the present investigation were collected from the history sheet of crossbred cattle maintained at the Instructional Dairy Farm of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. The data pertained to 1029 crossbred cattle from 107 sires were distributed over a period of 49 years from 1966 to 2014. The average breeding values of 91 sires by the Animal Model and 107 sires by the Sire Model were evaluated for all the traits. The average breeding values for AFC, FLMY, FLP, FDP, FCI, LTMY, and LTLL were estimated as 1199.02 days, 2799.08 kg, 332.08 days, 129.30 days, 459.04 days, 10002.88 kg, and 1087.66 days, respectively, by Animal Model. The average breeding values for AFC, FLMY, FLP, FDP, FCI, LTMY, and LTLL were estimated as 1199.85 days, 2799.56 kg, 332.10 days, 129.12 days, 458.57 days, 10005.00 kg, and 1091.55 days, respectively, by Sire Model. Sires were ranked according to their breeding values for both the models, which indicated that all sires would not rank the same for first lactation and lifetime traits. The top-ranking sires between the SM and AM were inconsistent for some traits. There were changes in the rank of first top 10 sires of sire evaluation by the Animal and Sire Model. Comparison between the Animal and Sire Model was done by estimating Information criteria of Akaike (AIC) and Bayesian (BIC) information criteria and found that Animal Model was having highest negative value for (AIC) and (BIC), indicating its superiority over than Sire Model for estimating genetic parameters. which suggested that the Animal Model would be the most adequate model.
Salmonellosis is one of the leading causes of food borne illnesses around the world and has been known to cause diseases in a number of hosts. Meat products especially poultry products have been known to serve as a source of disease transmission in humans since the major route of transmission is faeco-oral. In the present study, isolation of Salmonella was attempted from faecal samples of poultry and the prevalence was determined to ascertain the likelihood of a public health threat in the area.
The present study was conducted to understand the effect of Ficus racemosa (gular) as a feed additive on the Indian major carps IMCs Labeo catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala) fingerlings growth and blood parameters. The experimental feed was prepared with different concentrations of Ficus racemosa per kg Feed i.e., 0 (C0), 100g (G1), 200g (G2) and 300g (G3) per Kg feed. Fingerlings of IMCs were maintained in four different groups (n=60) for 90 days to conduct the experiment. All three species groups showed good condition factor (K) >1 and the specific growth rate was significantly greater (p<0.05) in the G3 group of all three species than in other groups (C0, G1 and G2). Haemoglobin and haematocrit values showed a linear increasing trend with the increase in the concentration of gular in feed for all the IMCs. The other blood parameters like TEC, TLC, and MCHC showed higher values in groups fed in G3 feed except for MCH. From the present study, it could be concluded that Ficus racemosa could be a great option as a feed additive that promotes the growth of Indian major carps, which will help to increase aquaculture production.
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important commercial crop that contributes virtually 80 per cent of raw material to textile industries. Initial stages of cotton cultivation i.e., sowing of cotton seeds involve large manpower (15%) and are tedious, causing fatigue, backache, high investment cost and energy consuming operation. A comparative study was conducted for combined operation of sowing of cotton seeds and fertilizer placement between mini tractor (25 HP) operated cotton planter cum fertilizer applicator developed at JAU, Junagadh and traditional method i.e., using farm labour and machinery. The performance of cotton planter cum fertilizer applicator for combine operation showed better outcome as compared to traditional sowing and fertilizer application method. The field efficiency for the mechanical method was observed as 84.52 % at an operating speed of 2.5-2.8 km/h. The field experiment revealed the comparative parameter viz., operational time, energy consumption and operational cost were found to be 4.69 man-h/ha, 249.02 MJ/ha and 1215.13 Rs/ha, respectively, which was significantly less when compared with the traditional cultivation method.
The green gram crop is harvested manually by small and marginal farmers in India. Different types of reapers are available, which are used for harvesting different crops at the lower cutting height up to 5×10-2 m. In order to study the mechanization of green gram harvesting operation for small and marginal farmers, a walking behind self-propelled vertical conveyor reaper-cum-windrower with the lip-less guard was evaluated for harvesting of green gram crop at 86, 93 and 97 days after sowing (DAS). In this study, the field capacity of the reaper and harvesting losses and the average stubble height of the green gram were measured. The reaper’s field capacity and harvesting losses were observed as 0.18 ha/h and 1-2%, respectively, at a forwarding speed of 0.57 m/s.
India is the world’s second largest producer of vegetables, responsible for nearly 13.3% of global vegetable production. Carrots are one of the most important vegetable crops produced in various parts of the India. Carrot harvesting is a time-consuming and labor-intensive operation that requires 250-300 man-hours per hectare, as well as more time and energy consume. As a result, carrot digging must be mechanized to save time, money, energy, and human drudgery. Therefore, Tractor operated carrot digger was designed and developed using three types of digging blades (Sweep, Nose and Shovel type).
The abundant availability of pine needles (Pinus roxburghii) resulted from continuous leaf shredding in pine forests of north Himalayan region. The summer forest fire in pine forests has devastating effects on local communities, cattle, wildlife, soil flora and fauna. The local communities conventionally use pine needles for fruit packaging and cattle bedding due to its lower biodegradability. The lower biodegradability results from higher lignin content of pine needle. The lignin content of biomass is also responsible for higher biochar yield upon thermochemical conversion. Therefore, the present study analyzes the potential application of pine needles for its thermochemical conversion into bio-fuel. The study asserts the suitability of pine needles for production of pyrolysis oil and biochar through thermochemical conversion.
New trends in wetland management, analysis, and conservation are based on remote sensing techniques and geographical information systems (GIS).Present study investigates the LULC (land use land cover) analysis of Okhla Bird Sanctuary, with the help of LISS III (2008) and Sentinel-2 (2021)satellite data. A comparison study involving all three categories (water, barren land, and vegetation) has been carried out as part of the process of monitoring the change in land use and land cover. From 2008 to 2021, there were big changes in the barren land, which grew by 50.77%, and in the amount of vegetation cover, which went down by 36.87%. The results of regression analysis indicate that LULC classes was influenced by precipitation, 88.7% in 2008 and 64.9% in 2021.Wetlands are one ecosystem where governments around the world should focus their attention to help recharge groundwater and control the amount of water, which will also help solve the problem of drinking water scarcity.