Formerly International Journal of Basic and Applied Agricultural Research

Guidelines for Authors

Pantnagar Journal of Research is an open access online journal which is published by G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. It accepts original research papers, technical notes, and reviews (only by invitation) on all aspects of agriculture, veterinary and animal sciences, basic sciences, home science, fisheries and technology in English. Electronic versions of published articles are available from free of cost. The printed version is only for official circulation and hardcopy of journal will not be provided to authors. Neither subscription nor any publication fee is charged for the publication of article in the journal.

All articles should comply with the aims and scope of the journal and need to be submitted on 'Manuscript Central' which will be examined by the Editorial Board. Submitted articles will be sent for critical review to a minimum of two to three reviewers/specialists chosen by the editorial Board who reserve the right to publish or reject articles in accord with the recommendations by the reviewers.

Note : Only Research Articles will be accepted and Review Articles will only be accepted by Invitation.

Plagiarism Policy

As per the journal's policy, we are committed to publishing articles in original and plagiarism free in our journal. Hence your article must be screened for plagiarised content before sending it for peer-review.

Please note that if the article is not cleared in Plagiarism analysis and found to have plagiarized content more than 10-15%, the article will not be considered or will be asked to revise accordingly. The entire decision rests with the handling editor.

Ethics in publishing

Prospective authors will have to adhere the common Ethics in publishing the articles. The reviewers and Editorial board will also adhere to Ethical guidelines for journal publication. Submission of an article by author(s) implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder. In instances where authors prepare multiple submissions using the same dataset or sue partially overlapping variables in two or more articles, this needs to be declared upfront in the letter to the editor. Masked reference(s) to previous studies based on the same dataset need to be included in the manuscript itself so the reader can understand the novelty of new study in relation to the previous articles. Please consult the APA-manual on piecemeal publications. In cases where the manuscript is part of a larger project (e.g., prospective longitudinal study, an intervention study with numerous arms, etc.) in which other partly overlapping publications already exist, or are planned in parallel to the submitted manuscript, need to be declared in the accompanying letter to the editor. Authors are asked to be upfront declaring such manuscripts. The submitted articles will be subjected to a thorough check to prevent plagiarism. A manuscript may be returned if the degree of overlap is found to be too large.

Research Ethics
Studies in humans and animals

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.
For non-interventional studies (e.g. surveys, questionnaires, social media research), all participants must be fully informed if the anonymity is assured, why the research is being conducted, how their data will be used and if there are any risks associated. As with all research involving humans, ethical approval from an appropriate ethics committee must be obtained prior to conducting the study. If ethical approval is not required, authors must either provide an exemption from the ethics committee or are encouraged to cite the local or national legislation that indicates ethics approval is not required for this type of study. Where a study has been granted exemption, the name of the ethics committee which provided this should be stated in Section ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’ with a full explanation regarding why ethical approval was not required.
A written informed consent for publication must be obtained from participating patients. Data relating to individual participants must be described in detail, but private information identifying participants need not be included unless the identifiable materials are of relevance to the research. Patients’ initials or other personal identifiers must not appear in any images. For manuscripts that include any case details, personal information, and/or images of patients, authors must obtain signed informed consent for publication from patients (or their relatives/guardians) before submitting to an MDPI journal. Patient details must be anonymized as far as possible, e.g., do not mention specific age, ethnicity, or occupation where they are not relevant to the conclusions. A template permission form is available to download. A blank version of the form used to obtain permission (without the patient names or signature) must be uploaded with your submission. Editors reserve the right to reject any submission that does not meet these requirements.
If the study reports research involving vulnerable groups, an additional check may be performed. The submitted manuscript will be scrutinized by the editorial office and upon request, documentary evidence (blank consent forms and any related discussion documents from the ethics board) must be supplied. Additionally, when studies describe groups by race, ethnicity, gender, disability, disease, etc., explanation regarding why such categorization was needed must be clearly stated in the article.

Ethical Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.

The editors will require that the benefits potentially derived from any research causing harm to animals are significant in relation to any cost endured by animals, and that procedures followed are unlikely to cause offense to the majority of readers. Authors should particularly ensure that their research complies with the commonly-accepted '3Rs [1]':

Authors must include details on housing, husbandry and pain management in their manuscript.

Research Involving Cell Lines

Methods sections for submissions reporting on research with cell lines should state the origin of any cell lines. For established cell lines the provenance should be stated and references must also be given to either a published paper or to a commercial source. If previously unpublished de novo cell lines were used, including those gifted from another laboratory, details of institutional review board or ethics committee approval must be given, and confirmation of written informed consent must be provided if the line is of human origin

Research Involving Plants

Experimental research on plants (either cultivated or wild) including collection of plant material, must comply with institutional, national, or international guidelines. We recommend that authors comply with the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

For each submitted manuscript supporting genetic information and origin must be provided.

Form and preparation of manuscripts


Authors are requested to submit manuscripts electronically in MS-WORD format. We strongly suggest that authors carefully check the final version of their manuscripts for compliance with the format and style of the journal. In order to simplify journal production and minimize the number of errors, the final draft of the paper should be submitted as an electronic file created by a word processor. Likewise, authors are urged to send figures, photographs, graphs, and tables electronically, using programs that generate interchangeable formats (Corel Draw, Excel).


The content of the manuscript shall be organized in the following sequence and shall start on separate pages: title page (including author's name, affiliations and address for correspondence), abstract (including atleast 4 key words), text (consisting of introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusion and acknowledgements), references, figure legends, tables and figures. Titles should be short, specific, and clear. Beginning with the first page of text, each page should be consecutively numbered.

Abstract: The abstract is limited to 250 words, and should describe the essential aspects of the investigation. In the first sentence, the background for the work should be stated; in the second sentence the specific purpose or hypothesis shall be provided; followed sequentially by summary of methods, results and conclusion. No references should be cited.

Introduction: A brief background information on what has been done in the past in this area and the importance of the proposed investigation shall be given. Introduction shall end with a statement of the purpose or hypothesis of the study.

Material and Methods: This section may be divided into subsections if it facilitates better reading of the paper. The research design, subjects, material used, and statistical methods should be included. Results and discussion shall not be drawn into this section. In human experimentation, ethical guidelines shall be acknowledged.

Results: This section may be divided into subsections if it facilitates better reading of the paper. All results based on methods must be included. Tables, graphic material and figures shall be included as they facilitate understanding of the results.

Discussion: Shall start with limited background information and then proceed with the discussion of the results of the investigation in light of what has been published in the past, the limitations of the study, and potential directions for future research. The figures and graphs shall be cited at appropriate places.

Conclusion: Here, the major findings of the study and their usefulness shall be summarized. This paragraph should address the hypothesis or purpose stated earlier in the paper.

Acknowledgments. Acknowledgments should appear on a separate page. Tables. Each table should be given on a separate page. Each table should have a short, descriptive title and numbered in the order cited in the text.
Abbreviations should be defined as footnotes in italics at the bottom of each table. Tables should not duplicate data given in the text or figures. Only MS word table format should be used for preparing tables. Tables should show lines separating columns with those separating rows. Units of measurement should be abbreviated and placed below the column headings. Column headings or captions should not be in bold face. It is essential that all tables have legends, which explain the contents of the table.

Authors are requested to follow the instructions given below:

2.1 Typing

Manuscripts must be typed in Times New Roman, 10 cpi, with one and half spacing throughout (including footnotes, references, tables and legends) on A4 size paper with 2.5 cm wide margin on all four sides (left, right, top, bottom). One and a half spacing is equivalent to a maximum of 35 lines per page. All pages must be numbered in right bottom margin. The manuscript must be presented with numbered lines.

2.2 Size of manuscript

Manuscript should not exceed 30 typewritten pages, including figures and tables. Short communications and technical notes are limited to six type written pages including illustrations.

Manuscript should be presented in the following order:
2.2.1 Title Page

Title, name(s) of the author(s), complete postal address/affiliation and e- mail address of the corresponding author only.

2.2.2 Manuscript

The journal follows double blind review policy for the implementation of which authors are required to submit two separate word files of research paper.
1. Manuscript will all details: This file should have complete details of research papers including Title of the article, Name and address of author(s), Abstract, Keywords (3 to 6), Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgements and References.
2. Manuscript without author detail: This file should have all the details given above except Name and address of authors.

2.2.3 Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose potential interests on a separate 'Declaration of interest' page. If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted.

2.3 Division of the text

Manuscripts should be divided into sections and subsections by headings and subheadings up to a maximum of three levels. To differentiate them, CAPITAL BOLD LETTERS should be used for the first order titles, bold lower case letters for the second order, and italic bold lower case letters for the third order. Titles of sections and subsections should begin at the left-hand margins, followed by the first paragraph with one blank space. From the second paragraph in each section, the line to start a new paragraph should be indented.

The names of plant and animal species should be given in italics; for example, Zea mays

2.4 Quantities, units, abbreviations, nomenclature

Only SI quantities and units should be used (SI = Le Système International d'Unités). If data with non-SI units are reported, they should be put in parentheses behind the corresponding data with SI units. Symbols and abbreviations used to represent variables, constants, quantities, properties, etc. must be defined in the text at their first occurrence.

2.5 Tables

Every table must be referred to in the text. Tables are to be numbered with Arabic numerals in the sequence in which they appear. They should be typed on separate pages (one page per table) at the end of the manuscript. Every table must begin with a caption that starts with, for example, “Table 3…”.

The size of the tables should be such that they can be reproduced directly after reduction to a width of 85 mm. Tables of larger size (horizontally page) can be printed only in exceptional circumstances. Footnotes for tables should be indicated by lower-case letters in parentheses and typed directly under the table.

2.6 Illustrations
2.6.1 Figures

Every figure must be referred to in the text. Figures will be printed in black and white except under special circumstances which demand the use of color.

The size of figures must not exceed the size of the manuscript page. Figures should be typed on separate pages (one page per figure) at the end of the manuscript. All figures should be numbered with Arabic numerals, and in the sequence in which they are cited in the text.

Every figure must be accompanied by a legend which immediately follows the figure number: “Figure 5…”. Captions of figures should be written on a separate sheet.

Particular care should be taken to make sure that the data shown in figures are explicitly labeled with regard to the units used, and that the accompanying legends provide adequate information about the conditions under which the data were obtained.

Particular care should be taken to make sure that the data shown in figures are explicitly labeled with regard to the units used, and that the accompanying legends provide adequate information about the conditions under which the data were obtained.

2.6.2 Format

Regardless of the application use, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please “save as” or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the minimum resolution requirements). Figures must be saved in separated sheets in the following format: JPG of 300 dpi or TIFF of 300 dpi.

As this journal is printed in black and white, the use of color or gray tones should be avoided in figures. For bar graphics, please use different lines or fillings to differentiate them, and when Always use uniform lettering and font size (Times New Roman 12 cpi, as in the entire text).

2.6.3 Diagrams

Diagrams must be submitted as original drawings of excellent quality.

2.6.4 Halftones (photographs, drawings, paintings with fine shading, etc.)

Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi. For combination of artworks (e.g. halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc) a minimum resolution of 600 dpi should be used. TIFF, JPG, PDF, MS Office files (Word,PowerPoint, Excel) can be used in figures. Images should approximate the desired size of the printed version. Color reproductions are free of charge for online publication. The cost of incorporating color photographs or graphs in the printed version is free of charge.

2.7 Structural diagrams and mathematical equations

Structural diagrams of molecules as well as mathematical equations should be drawn or written at the appropriate places in the manuscript in an extra line. Equations should be denoted by Arabic numerals (in parenthesis) toward the right-hand margin.

2.8 Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements of financial support, advice, and other kinds of assistance should be made at the end of the paper under the heading "Acknowledgements".

2.9 References

Citations in the main text should be given by the surname and year of publication. For example, McDonald (1962), Vera and Luzio (1987), Ellies et al. (1995; 1999) or: (McDonald, 1962; Vera and Luzio, 1987; Ellies et al., 1995; 1999).

References should be listed in alphabetical order at the end of the text. The final reference list should show the name of the author(s) followed by the year of publication, full title of article or book, journal name, volume and page numbers, as indicated below.

2.10.1 Journal articles

Van Ranst, E., Utami, S. R., Vanderdeelen, J., Shamshuddin, J. 2004. Surface reactivity of Andisols on volcanic ash along the Sunda arc crossing Java Island, Indenosia. Geoderma, 123, 193-203.

2.10.2 Unpublished work

Papers that are unpublished but have been accepted must be cited with the journal's name followed by (in press). In all other cases, reference must be made to (unpublished work) or (personal communication).

2.10.3 Books and monographs

Tertian, R., Claisse, F. 1982. Principles of Quantitative X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis. Heyden, London, 385 p.

2.10.4 Chapters from multi-author books

Wold, S., Sjöström, M. 1977. Chemometrics, Theory and Application. In: B. R. Kowalski (ed). ACS Symposium Series Nº 52. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp: 243–282.

2.10.5 Theses

Hassink, J. 1995. Organic matter dynamics and N mineralization in grassland soils. Doctoral thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, 250 p.

2.10.6 Patents

Miller, B.O. 1952. U.S. Patent 2542356, Dow Chemical Company; Chemical Abstracts 51 (1961) 2870.


The corresponding author will receive a proof to correct errors only in typesetting. Any change in the style will not be entertained. Any factual change in the proof cannot be made without the authorization of the editorial office of the journal.

Corrected proof should be returned within 5 days by e-mail. In case of failure to comply with this deadline, the Editor in-Chief will decide whether to publish the article without corrections (declining responsibility for errors, which may remain) or to be considered as new submission.


The corresponding author will be supplied with the final PDF file with a DOI and the volume issue where the paper will appear.


G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology reserves all rights for the complete or partial reproduction of the materials published in Pantnagar Journal of Research. The right to reproduce material is subject to permission obtained from the authors with notification to the editorial office.

Important Guidelines for Acceptance

Maximize your chances of acceptance by making sure your manuscript

The above points are critical for publication of original papers. Be aware Editors carefully evaluate initial manuscript submissions and only those meeting the above criteria will be forwarded to review. If reviewed favorably and the authors seriously address all concerns, than chances of acceptance are increased.