The present investigation was undertaken with an objective to assess the selection parameters and extent of heterosis in Yellow sarson (Brassica rapa var. yellow sarson). Forty F1. along with 10 lines as female and 4 testers as males were included in experimental material for generating the information. Analysis of data showed presence of wide range of variability for various characters under study. The estimates of phenotypic coefficients of variability (PCV) were found higher than genotypic coefficient of variability (GCV) and environmental coefficient of variability (ECV). Maximum heritability was recorded for seed/siliqua (94.30%), followed by seed yield per plant (90.61%) and number of primary branches/plant (84.59%) along with high genetic advance for seed yield/plant (32.34%), seed/siliqua (29.12%) and number of primary branches/plant (21.70%). For days to maturity, NDYS-2018×NDYS-113 (-12.21**), NDYS-2018 × Pusa Gold (-11.62**) and B-9 × PPS-1(-8.65**) recorded highest better parent heterosis, relative heterosis and economic heterosis respectively. NDYS-115 × Pusa Gold (-15.69**, - 15.85**) possessed highest estimates of heterobeltiosis and mid parent heterosis while NDYS-2018×NRCYS-05-01 (-9.65**) registered highest estimate of economic heterosis for plant height. For seed yield maximum heterobeltiosis and relative heterosis was observed in cross, Jhumka × NDYS-113 (52.36**, 65.34**) while NDYS-128 × PPS-1 (41.54**) was the best cross with respect to economic heterosis. The Cross, NDYS-128 × NDYS-113 (24.47**) expressed highest estimate of heterosis over better parent and maximum relative and economic heterosis was possessed by NDYS-132 × NDYS-113 (25.18**, 22.29**) respectively
For parental selection in crop development initiatives, genetic diversity knowledge is crucial. In a randomized block design, 24 French bean genotypes, including the control variety (Lakshmi), were planted in the Kharif of 2018 and their genetic differentiation for 16 cultivation traits was assessed. All of the analysed characteristics exhibited a wide range of variation in experimental outcomes. The 100-seed weight was found to have significant genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation (GCV and PCV), with the number of days to first harvest being the lowest. Heritability is correlated with high heritability estimates. This indicates that these traits are under additive genetic influence and are more trustworthy for efficient selection. It was found to be high for seed yield per plot and lowest for days at 50% germination. The number of days before the first harvest and the length of the fruit were positively and significantly associated with yield at both genotype and phenotypic levels, according to correlation analysis, which also showed that the rind was established at pod maturity. Genotypic pathway factor analysis revealed that the days of first flowering, days of germination, seed yield per plot, fruit length, days until first harvest, 100-seed weight, number of primary seeds, branches per plant, pod set to pod maturity, and average pod weight had the most favourable direct effects on yield per plant
Eighteen genotypes of fenugreek were evaluated for growth and yield contributing traits at the Vegetable Research Center, G.B.P.U.A. &T., Pantnagar during the year 2018-19. Analysis of variance revealed that differences among genotypes were highly significant for the characters namely, test weight, number of seeds per pod, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity and seed yield. Minimum days of 50% flowering was found in genotypes FGK131 (46 days) followed by FGK128 (47 days). Plant height ranged from 80.33cm to 111.07cm. Highest number of pods per plant were observed in genotypes FGK132 (105.63) followed by FGK134 (97.80). The highest value for seed yield were observed in genotype FGK124 (1.39 kg per plot) followed by Pant Ragini (1.36 kg per plot). Highest PCV and GCV value revealed greater phenotypic and genotypic variability among the genotypes. For the character test weight, high heritability and high genetic advance were observed.
Gentiana kurroo Royle and Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) H. Karst., commonly found in the Indian Himalayan Region have been listed into the category of critically endangered medicinal plants. Considering the important role of chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in plant’s photosynthetic ability, the present study focuses on solvent extraction methods to compare photosynthetic pigment content in G. kurroo Royle and S. Chirayita (Roxb.) H. Karst. A higher chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in S. chirayita (Roxb.) H. Karst. was observed than that of G. kurroo Royle. Extraction using DMSO and methanol showed a higher content than that with water. A variation in values was observed in both the plants as they grow at different elevations implying a difference in biochemical components of the plants and requirement of different solvents for extraction
The field experiment was carried out during the Rabi season of 2021-22 at the experimental block of the School of Agricultural Sciences of the Shri Guru Ram Rai University (SAS-SGRRU), Pathribagh, Dehradun, Uttarakhand to study the effect of various nutrient management approaches on growth, yield and net profit of wheat crop. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RBD) with eight treatments viz., Control (T1 );Vermicompost @ 5 t ha(-1+ Seed inoculation with Bijamrit + 50 % RDF (T2 ); Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1+ PSB seed inoculation + 25 % RDF(T3 ); FYM @5 t ha-1+ PSB seed inoculation + 2 foliar spray of fermented buttermilk (T4 ); 50% RDF + FYM @5 t ha-1+ mulching @ 5 t ha-1 (T5 ); 25% RDF + Jivamrit + seed inoculation with Bijamrit + 2 foliar spray of vermiwash + 2 foliar spray of fermented buttermilk (T6 ); FYM @5 t ha-1+ Bijamrit seed inoculation + 2 foliar spray of vermiwash (T7 ) and 100 % RDF (T8 ) which were replicated 3 times. The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam with low available nitrogen and organic carbon, medium available phosphorous and available potassium Application of 50 % RDF + FYM @ 5t ha-1+ mulching has recorded more yield which is significantly higher than other nutrient management approaches. Substitution of 50 % inorganic fertilizers with FYM can be adopted for economically viable and sustainable wheat production with improved yield in irrigated conditions of Doon Valley areas of Uttarakhand
Micro-plants of potato of two varieties (Kufri girdhari & K. giriraj) were produced through micropropagation using virus free cultures. For mini-tuber production, micro-plants were transplanted in the poly-house in the month of January and harvested after 150 days. Weight of mini-tuber (G0) ranged 2.73 – 20.83 & 4.55 – 24.04g in K. girdhari and K. giriraj respectively. The relationship between number and weight of G0 tubers showed positive linear correlation in both the varieties. For the first generation (G1) seed production, G0 was divided in to five categories on the basis of tuber weight and sowing was done in the open field. Highest yield was recorded in K. girdhari in the first category (161.8 q/ha) whereas lowest was in K. giriraj in the fifth category (22.20 q/ha). In the second category yield was at par in both the varieties (114.00 – 111.00 q/ha). Though K. giriraj showed lower yield but highest per cent increase in average tuber weight was recorded in category fourth and fifth as compared to K. girdhari.
Studies were conducted to record the insect-pest species in the cowpea ecosystem during the Zaid and Kharif seasons of crop growth. A total of nineteen insect-pest species, belonging to seven orders and fourteen families, were recorded at different stages of crop growth, five of which belonged to Lepidoptera, seven to Hemiptera, three to Coleoptera, and one each to Orthoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera and Isoptera. All the major parts of the cowpea crop viz., pod/seed, flower, flower bud, leaves and root were found to be infested by these insect species. Out of nineteen species, spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata F., tur pod bug, Clavigralla gibbosa, Spinola, pod sucking bug, Riptortus pedestris F. and bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were observed as the major insect-pests in cowpea ecosystem. Studies highlight insect-pest complex infesting cowpea crop, allowing farmers to plan in advance to reduce infestations of these pest species.
Oilseed Brassica is an important source of oil for people worldwide. Oilseed Brassica crops largely attract hymenopterans because Brassica flowers are well adapted to generalist insect pollinators; they produce large amounts of pollen and nectar throughout the entire flowering period, which draws the attention of most of the insects. In the current study, we studied flower morphological characters of different oilseed Brassica species in relation to floral visitors along with their abundance rate at Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre in Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) during the rabi season 2020-21. Results revealed that Apis mellifera had the highest relative abundance (42.11%) in oilseed Brassica, whereas, among oilseed Brassica cultivars, B. nigra reported the highest bee abundance (19.05%). However, among bee species and different Brassica cultivars, A. mellifera (5.06 bees/m2 /5min) showed the highest abundance in B. carinata followed by Halictus spp. (3.78 bees /m2 /5min) in B. nigra. Large size flower structures were found in B. napus (variety- GSC-6) and B. carinata while small flowers were found in B. nigra, therefore A. mellifera showed positive significant correlation with flower morphological characters viz., petal length (r = 0.791*) and outer stamen (r = 0.732*) and Halictus spp. reported negative significant correlation with flower morphological characters viz. sepal length (r = -0.823*) and inner stamen (r = -0.799*). The results suggested A. mellifera species could be effective pollinators of large flower sized Brassica cultivar, and Halictus spp. could be effective pollinators of small flowers sized Brassica cultivar. This association also occurs between other bee species and Brassica variety, except in case of A. florea. On the other hand, the activity of A. florea in oilseed Brassica is independent of floral morphological characteristics and may be influenced by other factors like as weather conditions, nectar availability of pollen etc.
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the long-term efficacy of different formulations seven essential oils and their combinations on the progeny productions of notorious stored grain pest, Sitophilus oryzae L. (Rice weevil). The essential oils of Mentha arvensis (Mint), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Mentha spicata (Spearmint), Cymbopogon winterianus (Citronella), Eucalyptus citriodora (Nilgiri), Curcuma longa (Turmeric) and Pinus roxburghii at 0.2, 0.4 per cent concentration (v/w) and in combination of 0.2+0.2, 0.14, 0.1, 0.08, 0.07, 0.06, 0.1+0.1 and 0.3+0.1 per cent each were evaluated for this purpose. It was observed that all the formulations of herbal fumigants except M. arvensis oil, C. winterianus oil, C. longa oil at 0.2 per cent, M. arvensis + C. longa at 0.2 per cent each, M. piperita + C. longa, C. longa + P. roxburghii, C. longa + M. arvensis at 0.1 per cent each, C. longa + M. arvensis at 0.3+0.1 per cent completely inhibited the progeny production of S. oryzae. Herbal fumigants used at 0.4 per cent with sole component of M. arvensis, M. piperita, M. spicata, C. winterianus, E. citriodora, C. longa or P. roxburghii oil or their two-component combination 0.2 per cent each, three component combination at 0.14 per cent each, four component combination at 0.1 per cent each, five component combination at 0.08 per cent each, or six component combination at 0.07 per cent each or seven component combination at 0.06 per cent each completely inhibited the progeny production of S. oryzae up to 515 days showing high efficacy of these oils as herbal fumigants.
Horticulture sector is a major segment under the growing agriculture sector. India is the second-largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the World. Uttarakhand produces 57,753.49 metric tonnes of apples per year from both the regions of the State. Majority of apple growers are categorized under medium to low socio- economic status because of the constraints faced by them. Past researches showed that Apple growers were facing major problem of marketing inefficiency. The extension worker and farmers ratio are also less and there is a huge information gap. As a result, there is a need to assess the constraints faced by apple growers in Uttarakhand. The present study was conducted in the Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand. Four villages were selected randomly from one block as it had a maximum number of apple growers. A total sample of 120 respondents (30 from each village) was selected by PPS sampling method. The data collection was done by using a pre-tested structured interview schedule. Besides knowledge test was also developed for determining the knowledge of apple farmers in the study area. The findings of the present study indicated that majority of the respondents (72.5%) belonged to middle age group, had education upto intermediate level (32.5%), had medium family size (92.5%), were in medium annual income (67%), had medium size of apple orchard (65%), had ten to thirteen year of experience in apple farming (44.16%), had medium information seeking behaviour (59.16%), had medium risk orientation (69.17%), owned mobile with internet (100%), have medium mass media exposure (65.84%). Climate change, lack of reasonably priced and efficient transport, poor transportation infrastructure, high cost of packaging material, knowledge deficit about grading facilities and low-quality extension services were identified as significant constraints.
The present study was undertaken on 50 unrelated Badri (hill cattle) of Kumaon region of Uttarakhand to explore polymorphism in intron 1 and 2 as well as exon 3 regions of leptin gene by PCR-RFLP technique and to find out the frequencies of different restriction fragment patterns for different regions. To reveal polymorphism in intron 1, a 340bp fragment within leptin gene was amplified and then digested with DraI restriction enzyme and study revealed three distinct types of genotypes or restriction patterns were observed. The genotype and gene frequencies were found to be 0.14, 0.40 and 0.46 for GG, GA and AA genotypes and 0.34 and 0.66 for G and A alleles, respectively. Restriction digestion of 422bp amplicons of intron 2 with Sau3AI revealed three genotypes. The genotype and gene frequency were found to be 0.56, 0.30 and 0.14 for AA, AB and BB genotypes and 0.71 and 0.29 for A and B alleles, respectively. The exon 3 fragment of 430bp size was digested with MspI and three distinct genotypes were observed. The genotype and gene frequency were found to be 0.26, 0.58 and 0.16 for CC, CT and TT genotypes and 0.55 and 0.45 for C and T alleles, respectively. The AA genotype in intron 1 was found to be relatively higher than GG genotype. The A allele of Sau3AI digestion within intron 2 was predominant and frequency of mutant allele T in exon 3 was found to be low
This study was undertaken for genetic diversity and bottleneck analysis in Udaipuri goat found in Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand using a set of twenty microsatellite markers. Blood samples were collected from 30 unrelated animals from the breeding tract. All the twenty microsatellite loci were amplified successfully and a total of 96 alleles were observed across all the loci. When bottleneck analysis was performed, sign test revealed the observed heterozygosity excess was higher than the expected utilizing IPM, TPM and SMM. The expected heterozygosity (Hee) values were 11.31, 11.66 and 11.85 while the observed heterozygosity (He) were 20, 18 and 14 for IAM, TPM and SMM, respectively. Under standardized test, T2 values were positive (4.958, 3.766 and 2.032 utilizing the IAM, TPM and SMM, respectively) indicating a gene diversity excess that is caused by reduction in effective population size.
The live body weight of farm animals is a major factor in determining a number of traits that are significant economically. Birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, and the effectiveness of weight gains are growth parameters that are economically significant in relation to the cost of production. Data on body weight and zoometric characteristics were gathered over a 12-year period from the Sirohi goat AICRP project in Udaipur, India (2007 - 2019). The least-square means at birth to 12month of age of body height were 30.36 ± 0.288 cm to 64.00 ± 0.998 cm, body length 29.15 ± 0.321 cm to 58.89 ± 1.168 cm, body girth 30.46 ± 0.284 cm to 64.13 ± 0.995 cm, body weight 2.53 ± 0.034 kg to 22.38 ± 0.53 kg, respectively. At various stages of life, it was shown that there were positive, low to medium-level (0.258 to 0.762) phenotypic associations between body weight and zoometric features. The best fit regression equation was developed using a combination of body height, body length, and body girth at birth, 3, 6, and, 12 months age, based on the largest R2 value (0.694). Result revealed that combination of body height, body length, and body girth required for best regression equation and this combination also positive association with zoometric traits.
The present investigation was carried out to study the production performance of different poultry layers at Poultry Research Training Center, SVPUA&T, Modipuram, Meerut. Total 300 poultry layers of three breeds viz., Aseel, Kadaknath and Rhode Island Red in four nests were observed. The traits studied were age at sexual maturity, body weight at sexual maturity, annual egg production, egg weight, shape index, shell weight and shell thickness. The data were analysed by using CRD. The age and body weights at sexual maturity were 187.09±0.16, 182.54±0.15 and 160.21±0.15 days and 1441.74±0.58, 1287.94±0.49 and 1269.93±0.58 gm; the annual egg production and egg weight were 87.14±0.15, 105.32±0.27 and 229.19±0.70 eggs and 47.09±0.13, 42.57±0.41 and 52.42±0.11 gm; egg shape index 75.64±0.12, 75.01±0.11 and 74.67±0.15 per cent, shell weight 5.83±0.19, 5.74±0.01 and 7.08±0.18 gm and egg shell thickness 0.32±0.001, 0.33±0.001 and 0.32±0.001mm in Aseel, Kadaknath and Rhode Island Red breeds, respectively. The analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among breeds for most of the traits except egg shell weight and egg shell thickness.cc
Unsound hygiene, dietary deficiencies, and battle wounds set the stage for epidemic infection, while inadequate information about disease causation greatly hampered disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. War causes destruction of the infrastructure and related operational mechanisms. Public health gets compromised due to limited resources. As a consequence of which disease outbreak takes place and creates public health havoc. Many vector borne and water borne diseases may scale up in a population over a short period of time if ill managed.
Zinc is widely used in daily life, though it is considered comparatively safe; its pathological effects have not been documented. Limited investigations have been carried on effect of zinc nanoparticles on health of animals and man. Therefore, present study was designed to study the effect of zinc nano particles on haematological parameters of wistar rats. For this study, a total of 35 rats of six week age of both sexes approximately 50 gram weight were divided randomly into two groups of 20 rats in Group I (control) and 15 rats in group II(treated). In treated group rats were given nano zinc particles into stomach by oral gavaging and dose of nano zinc was selected based on NOAEL dose of nano zinc oxide 31.25 mg/kg body weight of rat for a period of 90 days. Blood was collected from 5 rats from each group at 0th (only from G1 group), 30th, 60th and 90th DPT for hematological studies. Hematological parameters like haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total leucocyte count (TLC), absolute lymphocyte count and lymphocyte count showed decrease in values compared to control. Significant decrease was observed in mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and lymphocyte count. There was increase in values of total erythrocyte count (TEC), monocyte count, eosinophil count, neutrophil count and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) as compared to control group. However, significant increase in total erythrocyte count (TEC), monocyte count and neutrophil count were observed.
Pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.] is second important pulse crop of the country after chickpea in India. Harvesting by engine operated self-propelled reaper involves very high vibration and noise which creates adverse effect on operator and combine harvester unable to work properly in small fragmented land. Considering all above, a study was planned to develop battery operated pigeon pea stem cutter in which the cutting may be done by an electric power through motor. Developed pigeon pea stem cutter was tested in research farm with two independent parameter of forward speed and blade type at Sagdividi Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh in March 2022. The overall performance of the machine was evaluated on the basis of field capacity, field efficiency, cutting efficiency, uncut and damage per centage by two different levels of forward speeds and three types of cutting blade. The field data were statistically analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the Factorial-complete randomized design (FCRD) with three replications. The value of field capacity was 39.06 h/ha for two labors, hence total 78.12 man-h/ha required for traditional method whereas the total time required was 9.10 h/ha (18.20 man-h/ha) using two labors for mechanical harvesting method using developed pigeon pea stem cutter. Total harvesting cost was 3000 ₹/ha for manual harvesting method. Whereas total harvesting cost was 993.79 ₹/ha for developed pigeon pea stem cutter. In stem cutter harvesting method, there was 76.70% time decreased and 66.87% reduction in cost as compared with manual pigeon pea harvesting.
Straw is undesirable plant part that is left in the field after harvesting. At present, the cost of straw gathering is increasing because of increased use of combine harvesters. High wages and scarcity of labour makes manual collection unfeasible. Farmers therefore often just burn it, which causes pollution, increased emission of greenhouse gases and loss of opportunities to value addition. In terms of greenhouse gases. An economic, environmental evaluation and field testing of straw baler with different crops with capacity of 4.8 and 4.16 ha per day for paddy and wheat crop respectively. During field testing data on field capacity, field efficiency, straw recovery, fuel consumption, cost of operation and energy consumption were collected as 0.6 ha h-1, 91%, 92%, 3.5l h-1 , ₹1672 per ha and 343.96 MJha-1 for paddy and 0.52 hah-1, 89%, 90%, 4 l h-1 , ₹2012 per ha and 458.63 MJ ha-1 for wheat respectively; whereas, the cost for manual gathering was ₹ 2332 and ₹2806 per ha for paddy and wheat straw respectively. The benefits of the machine are not only economical but also exclude the hazardous effects of burning of crop residues from environment.
Cold storage of post-harvest produce is the major requirement in agriculture processing component in the food supply chain. Cold storage systems can be a way which can provide such places to save the periodic production and it can increase the shelf life of the produce. The cold storage systems are designed to enhance the shelf life of agricultural produce and reduce the post-harvest losses while maintaining the optimum storage temperature. The modern cold storage units regulate the temperature and humidity using a variety of technologies. The use of solar energy in cold storage can be advantageous for small and marginal farmers of our country. To provide diversity of agricultural produce over a long season, small and marginal farmers need to use energy efficient cold storage techniques to reduce costs and extend the revenue period other than maintaining product quality and freshness. To overcome post-harvest storage crises of the produce of the farmer, the cold storage should be feasibly designed with optimum capacity beneficial for large access by the small holding farmers. It can be a boon to enhance quality of farm commodities as well as farmers’ income. This paper entails the review of earlier developed cold storage systems used for preservation of agricultural commodities.
This work aims to study the role of friction stir welding parameters and their effect on the microstructure behavior of weld joint. Due to differences in mechanical, physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties, etc. it is difficult to join dissimilar metals. Sometimes this is not possible to join dissimilar metals by other methods. This type of problem can be solved by using friction stir welding. Friction stir welding reduces the presence of distortions, residual stresses, defects like porosity, shrinkage, cracking etc. Properties of friction stir welded joints are nearer to the properties of parent metal because friction stir welding is performed below the melting temperature. That makes friction stir welding process suitable for dissimilar metals and various applications. The quality of FSW joint is mainly depends on selection of FSW parameters. The study of the microstructure of FSW joint helps in understanding the flow of plastically deformed material, grain structure, grain size, the bonding between the grains and to analyze the cause of various defects formed during the process.
Effective communication is all about making the receiver/audience understand the sender’s intended meaning of the message. As a part of the efforts to reach the farmers, students, agriculture scientists as well as the rural community, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology publishes two monthly farm magazines, one of them is Indian Farmers Digest. To analyze the content and to measure the readability of the content published this study was conducted. The study was undertaken by random selection of the five issues of Indian farmers digest from each year of 2020 and 2021. Findings revealed that, agriculture articles and illustrations have the highest publishing frequency, followed by animal sciences, home science and other related areas. The readability score was calculated and analyzed through using readability measuring formula, SMOG Index. It was found that the level of reading of the articles is from high school above to undergraduate level.
The aim of Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Farm Science Centre), an innovative science-based institutions, were consequently established mainly to impart vocational training to the farmers and field level extension workers. The concept of vocational training in agriculture through KVK grows substantially due to greater demand for improved agricultural technology by the farmers. The study was carried out in the KVKs of Raebareli and Pratapgarh districts of Uttar Pradesh. By following simple random sampling 160 beneficiaries form KVK Raebareli and 160 beneficiaries from KVK Pratapgarh were selected. The finding revealed that great majority that age of rural women was positively and significantly correlated with level of involvement of women in decision making. Education of farm women was found effective in the participation of farm women in agricultural decision-making process. Respondents of forward caste participated in decisions with a greater frequency than SC and ST; and so, caste was found to have significant influence on the level of women’s involvement in farming decisions. From this study it may be suggested that in rural families, type and size of the family, caste, size of land holding, socio-economic status of the families, education level of rural women have significant influences on the involvement in decision-making