The experiment was conducted in the Augmented Block Design, comprised of 90 entries, along with 3 check varieties Sonalika, HD 2967 and HI 8713. Results revealed that variance was the highest for grain yield per plot and the lowest for spike length. The coefficient of variability was the highest for grain yield and the lowest for days to 75% heading. The highest heritability was recorded for tillers per meter and the lowest for 1000- grain weight. Grain yield exhibited highest genetic advance in percent of mean and lowest for days to 75% heading. However, with respect to correlation with one or other traits, grain yield was positive and significantly correlated with days to 75% heading, plant height, tillers per meter, grain per spike, spike length and grain yield per plot. Path coefficient revealed that 1000- grain weight exerted positive effect on all characters except days to 75% heading. The genotypes were classified into 7 different clusters by Non- Hierarchical Euclidean Cluster Analysis. Cluster -I had 13 genotypes whereas cluster -II had 20 genotypes, cluster- III had 8 genotypes, cluster -IV had 12 genotypes, cluster -V had 9 genotypes, cluster-VI has 15 genotypes and cluster-VII had 16 genotypes. Inter cluster distance was found maximum between cluster –III and cluster –IV and minimum was found in cluster–I and II.
Twenty-one genotypes of wheat were evaluated for the genetic variability so the genotypes can be categorized based on their variability for hybridization programme. The analysis was carried out in Rabi season 2021-22 at Agricultural field block of Baba Farid Institute of Technology, Dehradun, in randomized block design (RBD) with 3 replications. The pre-harvest (plant height, spike length, number of tillers, days to 50% maturity and days to maturity) and post harvest (No. of seeds per spike, biological yield, economic yield, harvest index and 1000 seeds weight) parameters recorded on plant morphological traits and grain yield. On analysis of variance for the above studied parameters, it indicated wide variability among the twenty-one genotypes of wheat and shows that through crop improvement methods considerable amount of improvement can be achieved. The GCV and PCV shows highest variability in the following characters harvest index, biological yield per plot, test weight, economic yield per plot number of tillers respectively. These traits in wheat had showed high variance that can be preferred for further improvement. Economic yield per plot the essential yield attributes has positive significant correlation with harvest index and possessed positive non-significant correlation with number of seed per spike, biological yield per plot, test weight while it has negative significant correlation with days to 50% maturity. It has negative non-significant correlation with plant height, number of tillers. This represent that the twenty-one genotypes taken have substantial variation for different traits evaluated and significant association with yield that can be considered in breeding programme for increasing yield.
Pea is one of the most important pulse crops. It is a self-pollinated crop with chromosome number 2n = 2x=14. The primary centre of origin is Mediterranean region. It is used as fresh and processed frozen vegetables in India and abroad. To improve the yield levels in this crop, studies on combining ability and heterosis are a method to select suitable parents based on their general and specific combing ability and heterotic effects for use in further breeding programmes. During the present investigation crosses were made in line x tester mating fashion during 2018-2019 and the data was investigated in 2019-20 at Vegetable Research Farm of Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, for obtaining 30 crosses. 30 hybrids and their parents (10 lines and 3 testers), were grown. The general combining ability was significant for all characters in line x tester analysis; the genotypes KS-701 and KS-283 showed highest GCA effect among all genotypes along with highest mean performance respectively indicated these genotypes were good general combiners for green pod yield. Such lines can be utilized as suitable parents for hybridization programme. The cross combinations KS-802 x PSM-3 and C-18-1 x AP-3 showed high SCA effect for green pod yield per plant so it can be utilized for heterosis breeding.
The present study was conducted to find out the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield and quality parameters in garden pea (Var. Azad Pea-3) during winter season (2020-21). The treatments were a sole or combination of organic fertilizers (Farmyard manure, vermicompost), biofertilizer (Rhizobium) and inorganic fertilizers (Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). With respect to plant growth, yield, and quality parameters, T4 (100% NPK + seed treatment with Rhizobium) recorded the best result in terms of days taken to first emergence of seed, 50% emergence of seeds, first flower emergence, first pod emergence, number of pods per plant, pod weight (g), pod length (cm), pod width (mm), yield per plot (kg), yield per hectare (t), total soluble solids (̊Brix) and dry matter content (%) followed by T5 (75% NPK + FYM). The present investigation indicated that the application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizers along with seed treatment using Rhizobium before sowing was found to be the most effective and promising in enhancing the growth, yield and quality related characters in Azad Pea-3 (AP-3) variety of garden pea under sub-tropical conditions of the Garhwal hills.
In this experiment crosses was made in 2018-2019 using diallel mating design (excluding reciprocal crosses) and the data investigated in 2019-2020 at Vegetable Research Farm of Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology Kanpur, India. The experimental material comprised 8 diverse genotypes of vegetable pea obtained from Vegetable Science Department of Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology. The 28 crosses along with their 8 parents / diverse genotypes were grown in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Results of Correlation study revealed that pod yield per plant exhibited highly significant and positive correlation with plant height, number of branches per plant, days to 50% flowering, pod length, shelling percentage and pod width. The highest positive and direct effect on pod yield per plant was exerted by intermodal length followed by number of grain per pod and pod length. These are used in breeding programme in future prospects point of view.
The field experiment was carried out during the Rabi seasons of 2021-22 and 2022-23 at experimental block, School of Agricultural Sciences, Shri Guru Ram Rai University (SAS-SGRRU), Pathribagh, Dehradun, Uttarakhand to study the effect of various nutrient management approaches on growth, yield, quality, soil health and net profit of wheat crop. The experiment was laid out split plot design with two factors each at different levels. First factor includes absolute control, organic farming practices (Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 + seed inoculation with Azotobacter and PSB + 2 sprays of Vermiwash at 30 & 45 DAS); and Natural farming practices (Sieved cow dung @ 2.5 t ha-1 + seed treatment with Bijamrit + Jeevamrit @ 200 l ha-1). The second factor comprises 100% RDF, 75% RDF, 50% RDF, 25% RDF and were replicated 3 times. Incorporation of organic farming practices, natural farming practices and different doses of NPK fertilizers significantly influenced all the growth parameters, yield and yield attributes gluten content in wheat grain, soil microbial count in the soil and economics of the cultivation during both years of experimentation. In view of the two years of the experimentation, it can be concluded that organic farming practices + 75% RDF showed 15% and 18% yield advantages during 2021 & 2022, respectively over natural farming + 75% RDF and 29% and 35% over absolute control + 75% RDF. Similarly organic farming practices + 75% RDF showed 13% and 10% monetary benefit during 2022 & 2023, respectively over natural farming + 75% RDF and 40% and 41% over absolute control + 75% RDF. Thus, adoption of organic farming practices + 75% RDF can be suggested for higher grain yield, net income generation of the wheat crop in western Himalayan zones of the Uttarakhand.
Rice, a staple in Kerala, is cultivated across diverse conditions in the region. Alappuzha holds the second position in terms of rice cultivation in Kerala. The district has consistently faced salinity issues stemming from saltwater intrusion, attributed to its distinctive geographical characteristics. The average annual cost of cultivation of paddy incurred by the salt water unaffected and the affected farmers was found to be ₹ 1,03,322 and ₹ 1,04,145 per hectare respectively. A significant increase in percentage share of the cost of soil ameliorants (4.70 %) was observed for salt water affected farmers. The average cost of production of paddy was ₹ 17,200 and ₹ 27,398 per tonne for salt water unaffected and affected farmers respectively. The yield of paddy realised from the affected areas was remarkably lesser than that of the unaffected areas even though the cost of cultivation was almost similar in both areas. The B-C ratio for paddy cultivation at cost C for the salinity- affected farmers stood at 0.98, indicating marginal losses to the farmer
The current research on persistent toxicity of two insecticides, two fungicides, and their six combinations on soybean against 3days old larvae of S. litura was conducted during kharif, 2023 at Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. The order of toxicity at 72 hours after feeding (HAF) was spinetoram> flubendiamide> (fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin) + flubendiamide> (metiram + pyraclostrobin) + flubendiamide> (fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin) + spinetoram> (metiram + pyraclostrobin) + spinetoram> (carbendazim + mancozeb) + spinetoram> (carbendazim + mancozeb) + flubendiamide> tebuconazole> hexaconazole. The most persistent treatment was spinetoram with a PT value of 1266.65 followed by flubendiamide (PT= 1133.35) and (fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin) + flubendiamide (PT= 916.65). The least persistent treatments were tebuconazole and hexaconazole with a PT value of 6.66 at 72 HAF.
A field study was conducted to find out the reproductive problems and productive and reproductive performance of dairy animals in district Varanasi of Uttar Pradesh. About 200 farmers 40 from each selected village engaged in dairying were interviewed. Findings revealed that there was high prevalence of repeat breeding (72.5%), retention of placenta (35%), anoestrus (32.5%), endometritis (27.5%), prolapse of uterus (20%), abortion (17.5%) and dystocia (15%) in dairy cattle and buffaloes. Inadequate veterinary facilities during the time of emergency, high cost of treatment for reproductive problems and lack of knowledge about reproductive management of dairy animals were the most important constraints reported by respondents. The study also revealed productive and reproductive parameters of dairy animals such as an average daily milk yield was higher in crossbred cow, lactation length was higher in indigenous cow, lactation yield as well as peak yield was higher in crossbred cow and buffalo had lower dry period. Crossbred cow had their lower age at first calving and shorter calving interval than buffalo and indigenous cow whereas service period was lower in buffalo than crossbred cow and indigenous cow.
With the increased industrialization and change in human life style, there has been remarkable increase in the pollution level in air, soil and water. Poisonous gases released in the environment from the vehicles and hazardous chemicals disposed from industries are serious threats to mankind. Parallel to this attempt are being made to control the pollution so that the pollutants may remain upto certain permissible level. In such scenario, advancements in technology play a crucial role to control the pollutants beyond the permissible limit. In the last few decades Nanotechnology is an emerging branch which has diversified applications in human life. Nanoparticles are the particulate materials of less than 100nm and high surface area, thus showing higher reactivity, better electrical conductivity and hardness. These properties render them useful for a wide variety of applications, including control of environmental pollution. But in the recent years, the new problem of ‘Nanopollution’ has emerged which poses risks for the safety of living organisms as they may remain suspended in the air for a long time, may accumulate in the environment or maybe even absorbed in the body. This review discusses the role of nanotechnology in controlling the pollution, purifying the air, water and soil as well as safe disposal of hazardous waste materials.
Effluents from chemical industries are released abundantly into the environment many times without proper treatment. Such effluents find their way into the surrounding water bodies and thereby making water unfit for human and animal consumption. Limited investigations have been carried out on the impact of chemical industry effluents on health of animals and men. Therefore, present study was done to study the effect of chemical industry effluent on humoral immune response in mice. To study the effect of chemical industry effluent on humoral immune response, two-weeks-old 256 mice procured from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly were randomly divided into four equal groups of 64 mice each viz. control (group-1), R2B vaccine + effluent treated (group-2), effluent treated (group-3) and R2B vaccinated (group-4). The vaccine used was R2B strains given to group-2 and 4 @ 0.1 ml by intraperitoneal route. Humoral immune response was assessed by Lymphocyte Stimulation Test using LPS and by performing ELISA at 15th, 30th,45th,60th,75th,90th,105th and 120th day post treatment DPT. The mean OD and antibody titer was significantly lower in group 2 and group 3 mice on 90, 105 and 120 days of observation in comparison to groups 1 and 4 mice. These findings clearly suggest that the metal exposed animals might have a decreased ability to develop humoral immune responses.
A correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between clinical signs and seroconversion. The results of the correlation analysis demonstrated a positive association between clinical signs and seroconversion in cases of PPR infection. Conversely, no correlation was observed between seroconversion and clinical score in PPR negative animals tested via RT-PCR. Therefore, it can be concluded that a combination of high clinical scores and high seroconversion serves as an indicator of the current ongoing PPRV infection, which can be valuable for surveillance purposes in areas where PPR is endemic
The length weight relationship of Daysciaena albida from Vembanad Lake showed an allometric growth as the b value was 2.916. The condition factor, relative condition factor and modified condition factor were 0.9508, 1.009 and 1.290 respectively, which suggest species is in good condition. Coefficient of determination (r2) value was 0.993.
In South East Asia region rising incomes, growing population, and increasing urbanization have contributed to growth in livestock production and meat consumption. The study examined the status of production and consumption of meat in different countries of South East Asia region from 2000 to 2017. Descriptive statistics like average, percentage, etc. are used in the study. In South East Asia region, meat production increased about 114 per cent, which was much higher than that of 55.33 per cent increased in Asia continent as a whole, but with a lot of variations across different countries which ranged from 7.61 per cent increase in Singapore to about 574 per cent increase in Myanmar. Highest meat consumption increased was recorded by Myanmar (575.40 per cent), while lowest was in Cambodia (3.61 per cent) during this period. Maximum increase in the per capita meat consumption during 2017 over the year 2000, has been found in Myanmar to the tune of 491 per cent, while lowest increase was registered by Thailand (0.20 per cent).
Livestock plays a major role in global food systems as the main source of animal protein (milk, meat and eggs) and contributes to the livelihoods and nourishment of millions people in low and middle income countries. The study examined the status, growth and instability of production and consumption of milk in different countries of Central Asia region from 2000 to 2017. Descriptive statistics like average, percentage, etc.; estimation of compound annual growth rates (CAGR) in production and consumption of milk, and Cuddy - Della Valle indices are constructed in the study. In Central Asia region, milk production increased at CAGR of 1.79 per cent in Kazakhstan to 6.79 per cent in Uzbekistan while, total consumption of milk grew with the CAGR between 1.81per cent to 6.79 per cent. All the countries in the region registered positive growth rate in the region for both production and consumption. All the countries of Central Asia region remained with low instability in both milk production and consumption during the study period.
Jackfruit belongs to the family Moraceae. The rind of jackfruit is mostly thrown away or given to cattle. This issue can be resolved by processing the jackfruit rind into suitable food products and ascertaining its nutritional composition. In this study the jackfruit rind pulp with whole wheat flour were incorporated in varying percentage levels ranging from 10 per cent to 60 per cent for the preparation of vermicelli. Organoleptic and nutritional quality evaluation of vermicelli was done. The best treatment was selected through sensory evaluation using a score card with a nine-point hedonic scale. Based on organoleptic evaluation, the vermicelli prepared with 10 per cent jackfruit rind pulp and 90 per cent whole wheat flour had a maximum mean score of 8.56 for overall acceptability. The selected vermicelli had a moisture content of 6.91%, energy of 387.62 Kcal, carbohydrate content of 83.5 g per 100 g, protein content of 10.12 g per 100 g, fat content of 0.98 g per 100 g, and crude fibre content of 2.13 g per 100 g. On the other hand, the control vermicelli had a moisture content of 6.23%, energy of 388.43 Kcal, carbohydrate content of 84.94 g per 100 g, protein content of 11.2 g per 100 g, fat content of 0.91 g per 100 g, and crude fibre content of 1.92 g per 100 g. The use of unutilised jackfruit rind can be promoted and made available to the consumer in a ready to cook form throughout the year.
The present research aims to optimize pre-treatments (water blanching, steam blanching) with and without KMS and annealing, and heat moisture treatment (HMT) for drying of kale leaves to minimize deterioration of nutritional and functional constituents and to improve the physico-functional properties of kale powder. ASBK (Annealing-Steam blanching with 0.5% KMS application) was optimized as predrying treatment as it better retained the total antioxidant activity, β-carotene, total phenols, ascorbic acid and anthocyanins. In terms of physico-functional characteristics no significant difference between annealing and HMT was observed (p<0.05) but samples differed significantly in properties as compared to control. The optimized pre-drying treatment can be successfully used in processing of kale powder to be used as an ingredient in processed foods. The end product will have improved processing ability and can be used as a fortifying ingredient in processed food industry.
Supply from importation and capture fisheries cannot guarantee food security due to high cost, and low per capita fish consumption. In this study, responses were solicited from 150 aquaculture fish farmers who participated in the Fadama II programme through a questionnaire to examine the effect of their adoption of proven innovations and constraints to technology adoption. Hypotheses were tested using t-test. The study findings showed that the mean age of farmers was forty years, the majority were males (71.3%) and married (50.0%; their mean fish farming experience was 6 years at the inception of Fadama II programme and most (42.0%) were members of a cooperative society with a mean household size of seven persons. Their level of awareness and adoption was 92.0% and 68.9%, respectively, with advice on cropping and harvest being the most highly adopted technology (84.7%) and pond preparation having the highest adoption deficiency (41.4%). The most serious constraint encountered by respondents was inadequate input. There was a significant difference in income and yield before and after T & V extension interventions. The study recommends that to promote sustainable value chain aquaculture, more women be selected to participate in agricultural programmes, and that value chain concept should be actualized in agricultural programme from identification and formation of projects as well as in developing of appropriate strategies for improved agriculture and rural development.
Social media has increasingly gained more attention due to the advancement of technology over a period of time, yet it has fallen in public esteem. Youth uses social media more than any other segment of the population, and this use has changed their daily lifestyle by influencing their daily routines, schedules, behaviour, interaction pattern and relationships. Therefore, a research study was undertaken to find out the usage of social media by youth in rural as well as in urban areas. This study was conducted in Udham Singh Nagar district of Uttarakhand. Rudrapur block was selected randomly out of seven blocks. Total two villages i.e., Danpur and Matkota and two townships i.e., Fazalpur Mahraula and Rampura from the block were selected randomly. Total 120 respondents were selected randomly for the study and pre tested interview schedule was used for data collection. Descriptive research design was followed to meet the objectives of the study. The findings of the study revealed that that majority of the rural and urban youth belonged to middle age group and were male. They were educated up to Intermediate, unmarried and belonged to nuclear family. Maximum number of the rural youth meets and interacts with others daily and urban youth meet weekly and watch online movies and series in free time, had low social anxiety. Majority of respondents had favourable belief about social media and high motivation for social media use, medium social media fatigue. Majority of the rural and urban youth possessed smartphone and used social media to connect and communicate with friends and family. All rural and urban youth referred WhatsApp, spent 3-4 hours daily on social media, preferred to use social media during 9:00 pm- 12:00 pm.
A study was conducted to assess the traditional knowledge of therapeutic potential of native crops among population of Udham Singh Nagar Uttarakhand. A structured questionnaire vetted by experts and pretested through a pilot study was developed for the study. Data on demographic characteristics, knowledge about hill crop, knowledge about their therapeutic value and their role in disease management was studied. Knowledge assessment of different categories of hill produce (cereals, vegetables, fruits, pulse, oil seeds) showed low levels of knowledge. Barring few produce (spinach, ginger and horse gram) a low percentage of people knew about multiple therapeutic uses of hill crops. Most of the respondents fell in the average group of knowledge on scoring basis. Education qualification had a positive significant relationship with the knowledge of the respondents. The study revealed that lack of awareness about therapeutic crops is the main constraint for their use and popularization.
Mechanization stands as a viable solution to address the challenges of workforce scarcity in agriculture and allied sectors. It not only alleviates the labor-intensive nature of tasks but also enhances the efficiency and timeliness of various operations within these domains. This phenomenon extends to the dairy sector, where developed countries exhibit a high degree of mechanization due to the presence of large-scale dairy farms and a shortage of labor. In contrast, dairy mechanization in India lags behind developed nations, primarily attributed to the smaller size of dairy farms. However, there is a noticeable shift in India, particularly in the vicinity of urban areas, with an increasing trend in the size of dairy farms. Consequently, the Indian dairy sector is poised to encounter workforce shortages in the near future. In light of this, a survey was conducted on dairy farms around Bhopal to assess the feasibility of mechanization, and the findings are presented in this study.