Oat (Avena sativa L.) is used throughout the world for human food and animal feed, and it is frequently grown as a dual-purpose crop (grain harvest after grazing or forage cutting). To examine the seed quality of an oat germplasm an experiment was conducted in Seed Testing Laboratory of BSPC, GBPUA and T, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand with 57 oat germplasm (54 germplasm+3 check) in three replication using completely randomized block design (CRBD). The observation was recorded for fifteen quantitative traits. The present findings revealed that there are significant differences among all genotype under study for different seed quality parameters. seedling shoot length showed maximum value for genotype EC-2660 (16.55cm), followed by M-27(16.4cm). Similarly genotypes EC-2660 (34.73cm) also showed maximum value for seedling length followed by M27(33.17cm). Whereas germplasm D-1394(2.85g) and EC-43555 (2.34g) showing high value for the trait seedling fresh weight. These findings revealed that EC-2660, M-27, D-1394 and EC-43555 are superior for fodder purpose as they are showing high biomass and weight. Whereas, OX-503, EC-35199, M-72, EC-2660, M-27, D-1394, EC-43555, OX-559, OX-1090 and EC2874 were identified as superior in overall performance with respect to all quality parameters. Hence, they can be utilized in further breeding program for developing high fodder yielding varieties.
The present investigation an effective plant growth regulator to improve growth and productivity of rice in North-Western Himalayan region of India was conducted at NEB Crop Research Centre of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. The eight treatment combinations viz., Mepiquat Chloride 5% AS 50 g a.i./ha in 1000 mL/ha at MT (T1 ), Mepiquat Chloride 5% AS 62.5 g a.i./ha in1250 mL/ha at MT (T2 ), Mepiquat Chloride 5% AS 125g a.i./ha in2500 mL/ha at MT (T3 ), Mepiquat Chloride 5% AS 50g a.i./ha in1000 mL/ha at PI (T4 ),Mepiquat Chloride 5% AS 62.5g a.i./ha in1250 mL/ha at PI (T5 ), Mepiquat Chloride 5% AS 125ga.i./ha in2500 mL/ha at PI (T6 ),Mepiquat Chloride 5% AS 50ga.i./ha in1000 mL/ha at MT and PI(T7 ) and Untreated Control 100 RDF(T8 ) were evaluated with three replications under completely Randomized Block Design. The experiment was evaluated to see the effect of above treatments towards Growth, Yield and Productivity of Rice. The result of study revealed that treatment Mepiquat Chloride 5% AS 62.5 g a.i./ha in1250 mL/ha at MT stage resulted in significantly higher grain, straw and biological yield than all other treatments. Therefore, it was concluded that treatment Mepiquat Chloride 5% AS 62.5 g a.i./ha in1250 mL/ha at MT stage could be recommended for sustaining yield and productivity of rice under tarai conditions of Uttarakhand.
The purpose of the one-season field trial was to examine how integrated nutrient management affected the growth, yield and net income of the lentil crop. It was carried out at the Agriculture Research Block of the SGRR University (SAS-SGRRU), Dehradun, Uttarakhand, during the Rabi season of 2021–2022. Eight treatments viz: Control (T1 ); N:P:K @ 15:20:0 kg ha-1 (T2 ); N:P:K @ 15:20:20 kg ha -1 (T3 ); N:P:K @ 15:40:20 kg ha-1 (T4 ); N:P:K @ 15:40:20 kg ha-1 + Rhizobium (T5 ); N:P:K @ 15:20:20 kg ha-1 + Rhizobium + PSB (T6 ); N:P:K:S:Zn @15:40:10:8.5:10.5 kg ha-1 (T7 ) and N:P:K:S:Zn @15:40:0:17:21 kg ha -1 (T8 ), each replicated three times, were used in the RBD design. The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam with low levels of organic carbon, phosphorus, and potassium that were readily available. It may be advised to increase production and monitory benefit of lentil in valley areas of Dehradun, Uttarakhand, by applying N: P: K @ 15:20:20 kg ha-1 + Rhizobium + PSB because these treatments considerably increased grain yield, straw yield, harvest index, net income, and B: C ratio.
Aquilaria malaccensis (Thymelaceae) is a resin-producing tree and is commonly known as Agar or Sasi. In the North Eastern regions of India, the cultivation of Agarwood is extensively practiced, and a huge opportunity exists to promote the cultivation of Agarwood in the other regions of the country. Agarwood is used in various commercial products ranging from perfumery to religious functions. It has demonstrated immense potential in enhancing farm income and generating employment opportunities for the local people. Despite the achievement of good success in Agarwood cultivation, ample opportunity exists to develop agro-technology of cultivation, produce quality planting material, device management operations of plantations, and identification of elicitors for early inducement of agar oil. The price of natural resin is very high but only 1-2 % of the trees produces agar, while almost all artificially induced trees produce agar but their price is low, which is one of the major challenges in the Agarwood industry. Biotechnological techniques, such as, the use of microbes and microbial enzyme systems can contribute in terms of the value addition in agar oil. The artificial regeneration and plantation have been encouraged to promote the conservation of Aquilaria species at large, however; farmers face difficulty from associated abiotic and biotic stressors; those are affecting the overall survival rates of plants. Therefore, practicing scientific cultivation and adopting proper induction techniques in Agarwood can make a huge benefit to farmers, stakeholders, and industries.
The current research on effect of planting date on the occurrence of insect pests of rice was conducted during kharif 2020 at the Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. The damage caused by sucking pests is either more or less similar in normal and late plantings or the most damage was recorded in late planting. It was observed that early planting gives suitable conditions for the crop and manage the insect population, the damage due to sucking pests is either found more or less similar in normal and late plantings or maximum damage was recorded in late planting. It was found that early planting (30 June) reduced the incidence of insect pest in rice as compared to normal (15 July) and late planting (30 July) crops. The incidence of yellow stem borer, leaf folder, rice hispa, whorl maggot, brown plant hopper, white backed plant hopper and gundhi bug was low in early sown crop with the exception of green leaf hopper which had the minimum overall population during normal planting and high damage is seen in early planting as compared to others. The pre-harvest data and yield analysis shows significantly low white ear heads of rice with high yield (42.68 qha-1) in early planted crop as compared to timely (15.38 qha-1) and late sown crop (3.48 qha-1). There was significant difference among the yield recorded in early, normal and late transplanted crop.
S. litura, the larval form of a destructive pest, poses a significant threat to soybean crops, primarily by defoliating the leaves. To protect the crops and implement effective pest management strategies, it is crucial to understand the preference and antixenosis responses of the larvae towards different soybean germplasms. In this study, an antixenosis experiment was conducted to evaluate the preference index (C value) of eight soybean germplasms against third-instar S.litura larvae. The results revealed that the larvae exhibited a preference for two specific germplasms, JS-335 and JS21-72, with preference values (C values) ranging from 1.0 to 1.02. On the other hand, five other germplasms, DS-3108, Himso-1689, NRC-149, NRC-152, and VL-99, showed a slight antixenosis response with C values ranging from 0.93 to 0.99. DS-9421 exhibited a moderate antixenosis response with a C value of 0.75. The findings of this study align with previous research on antixenosis mechanisms of resistance in soybean germplasms. The feeding behaviour of S.litura, characterized by irregular holes and leaf scratching, was also observed. These results provide valuable insights for crop protection and resistance breeding programs. Overall, understanding the preference and antixenosis responses of S. litura larvae towards different soybean germplasms is crucial for developing effective pest management strategies and selecting resistant varieties. Further studies could explore additional factors influencing the feeding behaviour and resistance mechanisms, contributing to the sustainable protection of soybean crops against S. litura infestations.
Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the long-term efficacy of 141 formulations of herbal fumigants against Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum. The herbal fumigants were formulated by compounding the essential oils of Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Cymbopogon winterianus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Curcuma longa and Pinus roxburghii at different concentrations. All seven essential oils were studied at 0.20 and 0.40 per cent (v/w) while their two, three, four, five, six and seven component combinations were evaluated at 0.20, 0.14, 0.10, 0.08, 0.07 and 0.06, per cent (v/ w) each. Some other formulations such as M. piperita + C. longa, M. piperita + P. roxburghii, C. longa + P. roxburghii, C. longa + M. arvensis and P. roxburghii + M. arvensis were also evaluated at 0.10+0.10 per cent each while C. longa + M. arvensis and P. roxburghii + M. arvensis were tested at 0.30+ 0.10 per cent against both the insects. The test insects were reared on the grain treated with different formulations. The number of progenies produced by 10 adult insects were counted after 469 and 446 days, in case of R. dominica and T. castaneum, respectively. Inhibition of progeny by test formulation was calculated by using the number of adults emerged in treated and untreated grain. No adult of R. dominica emerged in any of the treatment after 469 days while 386 adults emerged from untreated grain. In case of T. castaneum, 153.3 adults emerged from untreated grain after 446 days while treated grain did not permit any adult. The results indicated that all the formulations of herbal fumigants completely checked the progeny production of both the insects for more than a year.
Oryza sativa (Rice) is the member of family Poaceae which comprises 25 wild species of rice. The expected increase in population is about 77 million people per year and in coming 20 years the approximate demand of rice will increase about 2.5% per year. In present investigation the fungal and bacterial bio control agents i.e., Trichoderma harzanium and Pseudomonas fluorescens alone and in combination were tested for growth promotion activity in rice plants under glass house condition. The result of the study reveals that the effect of seed treatment, soil treatment and foliar sprays of biocontrol agents consortia PBAT3, followed by consortium of TH17+Pf173, on seed germination percentage, root-shoot length, dry weight and fresh weight of rice plant was found very effective as comparison to control
The pathogenic fungi are highly diverse and utilize distinct strategies to interact with the host plant. Despite the diversity among these all fungi that colonize plants are recognized by the plant innate immune system, which elicits a host defense response. The innate immune perception triggers both local and systemic reactions, allowing a plant to respond to pathogen attack in a quick and localized manner over an extended period of time. It is accepted that most fungal avirulence genes encode virulence factors that are called effectors which are cysteine rich proteins. These proteins, first discovered because of their ability to trigger the hypersensitive response in resistant plants ("avirulence"activity), were later found to contribute to virulence in susceptible plants, typically host plants that lack effective resistance [R] genes. Over the past two decades, several novel Avr genes and cognate R gene have been discovered. The review provides a brief description of what are effector proteins, their types produced in the case of different host pathogen interaction, the mechanism involved and novel effectors. The focus has been given on effector molecules of biotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi, responsible for triggering immunity or activating host defense response.
The present investigation was carried out at Model Floriculture Centre, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. The trial was laid in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications and nine treatments. Among all the treatments plant height (63.53 cm), plant spread (55.57 cm), number of branches (5.93), number of leaves (189.33) and stem diameter (1.31 cm) were found maximum in plants treated with humic acid @ 3 mL L-1 and 75% Recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF-60:120:120 NPK kg ha-1) i.e., T4 after 150 days of application. T4 also exhibited maximum leaf area per plant (1023.75 cm2), early flower bud appearance (31.47 days), days taken for bud to bloom (12.47 days), 50 per cent flowering (49.33 days), maximum number of flowering shoots per plant per month (3.8), earliest days to harvest (44.40 days), maximum bud length (3.19 cm), bud diameter (1.85 cm), flower diameter (5.44 cm), number of petals per flower (46.73) andlongest flower longevity (5.73 days).Weight of single flower (3.97 g) and 100 flowers (398.87 g), number of flowers per plant per month (18.13), flower yield per plant per month (61.72 g), flower yield per plant per hectare (5693.17 Kg) and shelf life (29.20 hr) were also enhanced by T4 which also recorded highest benefit- cost ratio (2.62) whereas lowest value (0.73) was noticed in T9 (Arka microbial consortium + 50 % RDF) .
The quality of tomatoes is a complex feature that involves numerous plant and fruit-level processes and is influenced by interactions between social, cultural, and environmental factors. This study focuses on how pre-harvest factors affect tomato quality, and quality is determined from the standpoint of the customer, i.e., by fruit size or fresh mass, colour, taste, flavour, texture, and health value. The research was conducted in Department of Vegetable Science and quality analysis is taken by Biocontrol laboratory of Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology Kanpur, (U.P.). The tomato is the second fruit consumed globally and a model plant for biologists. Physiologists and geneticists have studied the mechanisms underlying tomato fruit quality in great detail, and reactions to climatic and cultural practices have been well documented. However, in a time of worldwide change, managing and enhancing fruit quality will depend on our ability to combine knowledge and foresee interactions among genotype, environment, and cultural practices. We might benefit from the recent advancement of process-based models of fruit quality to address this difficult problem. Here, a number of tomato growth and quality models are explored, along with their possible use in creating ideotypes?conceptual plants that are anticipated to function in particular settings
In the present investigation to study the effect of ZnO nanoparticles, the culture of species of Pleurotus sajarcaju was multiplied by using potato dextrose agar media in MRTC, Pantnagar. Media and substrate were supplemented with ZnO nanoparticles at different concentrations (0ppm, 20ppm, and 40ppm). It has been found that different treatments had nonsignificant impact on nitrogen content. However, the maximum nitrogen content (3.35%) was recorded at 20 ppm concentration of zinc oxide nanaparticles, which was 1.2% higher than control and at 40ppm 3.33% nitrogen was found. Application of ZnO nanoparticles gave 0.54% at 40 ppm more phosphorus content in the fruiting body of oyster mushrooms. It was observed that maximum potassium content (2.11%) was recorded at 20 ppm ZnO nanoparticle treatments, which was 71.54% higher than control. The sulfur content was higher at 3.23% at 20 ppm ZnO nanoparticle treatments. This study can be further used to combat macronutrients deficiency and hidden hunger.
Pearl millet, also known as bajra, is a highly nutritious and drought-resistant cereal crop, rich in protein, dietary fiber, essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. On the other hand, jamun seeds have been found to possess beneficial health properties, such as antioxidants, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Combining the nutritional benefits of pearl millet with the functional properties of jamun seeds in the form of biscuits could result in a healthy and convenient snack option. This study evaluated the nutritional composition, sensory attributes, and shelf-life of value-added biscuits made from pearl millet flour (HC 10 variety) enriched with 20% jamun (Syzygium cumini) seed powder. The incorporation of jamun seed powder in pearl millet-based value-added biscuits (HC 10 variety) positively impacted their nutritional composition, sensory attributes, and shelf life. The addition of jamun seed powder show significant differences in the crude fiber (0.71 to 1.14%), calcium (47.13 to 63.18 mg/100gm), phytic acid (362.13 to 347.09 mg/100gm) and mineral content, and overall nutritional value. In vitro digestibility was not affected by incorporation of jamun seed powder. In jamun seed powder the flavonoids, glycosides, phytosterols, tannins were present and triterpenoids was absent during screening test. Moreover, the inclusion of jamun seed powder improved the flavor, aroma, and overall acceptability of the biscuits, while also extending their shelf life by delaying lipid oxidation. As a result, the value-added biscuits have the potential to offer additional health benefits, making them a valuable addition to the diet.
This study has been undertaken to develop low-salt functional chicken patties(T1) incorporated with barnyard millet based on a sensory optimization trial. The developed patties were further coated with sodium alginate edible coating (T2) and compared with control patties C (patties with no functional ingredient and sodium alginate coating) and T1. The pH, protein, moisture, fat, ash, and fiber content of the 3 treatments were evaluated. The results revealed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in pH and fat content among all three treatments. The protein and moisture content of T1 and T2 was significantly lower than C. The fiber content of T1 and T2 was significantly higher(p<0.05) than that of the control. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between T1 and T2 for all the parameters of proximate composition and pH. This study revealed that 6% barnyard millet can be successfully incorporated into chicken patties without causing any significant change in the sensory attributes, proximate composition, and pH of the product.
The present study aimed to explore the effect of supplementation of tulsi leaf powder on growth performance in commercial broilers. A total of 160, day-old chicks (Ven-Cobb-430Y strain) were used for this study purpose and divided into four groups (Control, T1, T2 and T3), and each group was divided into four replications with 10 chicks in each replicate. The control was offered a basal diet without any supplementation, whereas the T1, T2, and T3 groups were offered basal diet supplemented with dried tulsi leaf powder at 5.0, 10.0, and 15 g/kg feed, respectively for the 42 days of the study period. Body weight, weight gain, and feed consumption were recorded. We conclude that supplementation of dried tulsi leaf powder at 5g/kg feed in the broilers diets shows higher body weight, body weight gain, and improves feed conversion ratio compared to other treatment groups.
In the past few decades there have been indiscriminate uses of antibiotics due to which there have been increased antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Due to the constant use of conventional antibiotics, they have become ineffective against the superbugs. This has become a global emerging problem and several labs are working to adapt novel strategies to combat these superbugs. One of the promising candidates is gene silencing which involves binding of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) with the corresponding antibiotic resistant gene sequence inside bacterial cell. In this review, the gene silencing and carrier molecules involved in the process have been discussed in detail.
Animals and man are inadvertently exposed to various man-made or natural forms of nano particles due to their presence in the micro-environment. Limited investigations have been carried on effect of aluminium nanoparticles on immune response and health status of animals and man. Therefore, present study was designed to study the effect of aluminium nano particles on humoral immune response of Wistar rats. For this study, a total of 35 rats of six-week age were divided randomly into two groups of 20 rats in Group I (control) and 15 rats in Group II (treated). The control group fed with normal standard recommended feed while treated group exposed to aluminium nano particles orally at NOAEL dose viz.6 mg/kg BW per day for a period of 90 days. Humoral immune response was assessed by hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays and also by performing ELISA from the serum separated from blood of 5 rats from each group at 30th, 60th and 90th DPT. The antigen used was reconstituted commercial Ranikhet Disease Vaccine, R2B strain vaccine Mukteshwar (IndovaxPvt. Ltd., Hissar). There was increase in humoral immune response in treated group but the results were not significant statistically.
Nanostructures enter the cells of organs and remain there for unknown durations before getting excreted or leaving to other organs. Limited investigations have been carried on effect of nanoparticles on health viz body weight and behavior of animals and man. Therefore, present study was designed to study the effect of zinc nano particles on health of Wistar rats. For this study, a total of 35 rats of six-week-old age of both sexes were divided randomly into two groups of which 20 rats in Group I (control) and 15 rats in Group II (treated). In treated group, rats were given nano zinc particles into stomach by oral gavaging and dose of nano zinc was selected based on NOAEL dose of nano zinc oxide 31.25 mg/kg body weight of rat for a period of 90 days. Rats of both the experimental groups were monitored daily in the morning and evening for presence of the clinical manifestation, if any. In rats of both the groups toxicity signs like abnormal posture paralysis, bleeding, diarrhoea, convulsion, breathing difficulties, restlessness and irritation were not observed. At the time of feeding rats from group I (control) showed normal response for feeding as compared to group II (treated). There was decrease response to feed and dull behavior noticed in rats of group II (treated). There was no mortality throughout the course of the study in rats of either group. There was 16.88% and 23.86% decrease in body weight in rats of treated group as compared to rats of control group at 75 and 90 day post treatment (DPT), respectively. Organ body weight ratio of spleen was decreased by 5.55 % and 7.69% at 60 and 90 DPT. However, the reduction in relative organ weight of spleen was not statistically significant as compared to control group. While, organ body weight ratio of thymus and liver was decreased significantly by 51.21% at 90th DPT and by 15.71% at 60th DPT respectively as compare to control group
Campylobacter species represent a crucial group of zoonotic bacterial pathogens responsible for causing enteritis in various animals, including domestic, captive, wild, and non-captive animals, as well as birds. The objective of the current study was to comparatively isolate and identify Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from faecal samples of wild animals. A total of 521 faecal samples were obtained from zoos, wildlife sanctuaries, and national parks located in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Chhattisgarh. Following aseptic collection, processing, and primary isolation, the growth of identified Campylobacters was evaluated using five different artificial media, classified into two categories: blood-free and blood-containing media. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found to be 11.90% (62 out of 521 samples), with Campylobacter jejuni accounting for 7.10% and Campylobacter coli for 4.80%. After enrichment, plating on Columbia Blood Agar (CBA) supplemented with selective supplements resulted in a significantly higher prevalence (11.90%) of Campylobacter spp. compared to other media such as Modified Charcoal Cefoperazone Deoxycholate Agar (mCCDA) (10.56%) and Sheep blood agar (BA) (8.25%). The lowest isolation rate was observed on Chocolate Agar (CA) (5.76%) and Hi-chrome Campylobacter agar (HCCA) (4.22%). The results of multiplex PCR confirmed the identification of Campylobacter species as well as the sensitivity of each culture method.
Meta-analysis diagnostic test on rabies in India was done to estimate the prevalence of the disease in India. The data was obtained from the peer-reviewed articles and publications during 2010-2020. The data which was used in the present study includes the studies in which the samples were completely random. The Meta-analysis for the diagnostic tests of rabies was done on a total 15 studies out of which 6 for RFFIT and 9 for ELISA. The total sample size for prevalence estimation through RFFIT was 689 and total sample size for prevalence estimation through ELISA was 1856. The Sero-prevalence of diagnostic test of rabies in dogs showed non-significant Kendall's tau for RFFIT (0.4667, p > 0.05) and regression test revealed significant publication bias (z= 0.3222, p>0.05). The Sero-prevalence of diagnostic test of rabies in dogs showed non-significant Kendall's tau for ELISA (0.1111, p> 0.05) and regression test revealed significant publication bias (z= 0.2142, p>0.05)
The objective of the present study was to enumerate the effects of feeding volume on growth rate of Schizothoraxrichardsonii fingerlings. A 30-days experiment was conducted to study the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of S. richardsonii fingerlings. FCR was calculated of the three treatments, T1 (basal fish feed), T2 (Periphyton) and in T3 (both periphyton and basal fish feed). Twenty fingerlings of 0.35 g average body weight were randomly stocked in each treatment. The feed was given at a rate of 4% of the wet body weight of the fingerlings. The fingerlings fed with both periphytons along with basal feed of treatment T3 showed significantly higher average body weight (0.51gm) as compared to other two treatments. The study revealed that FCR showed significant result with the lowest FCR value (0.07) and were positively correlated with average weight gain of the fingerlings in the case of third treatment (T3), These results showed that in captive condition the feeding preference of S. richardsoniifingerlings was basal fish feed and periphyton under coldwater conditions
The study discusses the massive mortality of fishes from the mudflats of Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary Wetland in India during July 2023, and examined the possible causes of this phenomenon. The physicochemical properties of water indicated that there was an evidence of reduction in water level, reduced dissolved oxygen (DO), low salinity, and acidic pH. The DO concentration varied from 0.3 to 1.2 mg/l, pH fluctuated between 5.5 and 6.4 and temperature ranged between 24.2 and 310C. As a result it was found that abrupt fluctuations in temperature and salinity lead to low DO, which caused mass mortality of fishes.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) is a warm-season vegetable crop. Tomato contains a high amount of water about 95 percentage (%), which justifies its perishable nature Since tomatoes are particularly perishable, post-harvest losses are very substantial. The study presented a comprehensive investigation into the physiochemical properties of pretreated tomato slices with 0.5% sodium metabisulphite, sodium chloride, citric acid and distilled water using three drying methods: tray drying, sun drying, and combination drying (sun drying followed by tray drying). Results showed that the highest ascorbic acid content was 42.56 mg/100g, achieved through combination drying at 60oC.The highest level of protein content was 21.76 mg/100g, attained through sun drying. Highest carbohydrate content was 72.93 mg/100g, obtained through tray drying at 55oC. The highest lycopene content was 107.45 mg/100g, achieved through tray drying at 60oC. B-carotene content was highest with 42.40 mg/ 100g, obtained through tray drying at 55oC. The highest pH was 4.30, attained through sun drying and the highest total soluble solids (TSS) was 8.82, achieved through tray drying at 65oC. The highest level of ash content was 11.90%, obtained through sun drying. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that drying methods and temperatures significantly affected the nutritional content of tomato powder. Pre-treatment with sodium chloride and citric acid showed promising results in preserving various nutrients during the drying process.
In a developing country like India, energy is a crucial element for agricultural productivity and economic growth. The amount of energy consumed and opinions of the GDP are closely related. Efficiency in administration and production on the dairy farm depends heavily on energy. The present review focuses on thorough analysis of the body of existing research and numerous reports by governmental and non-governmental organizations. On just 2.3% of the planet's surface area, India supports over 20% of the world's livestock population and nearly 17.5% of its human population. The population of people is growing at a rate of 1.6% annually, but the population of animals is growing at a rate of 0.66% annually. Both the human and animal populations are growing, and they are vying ferociously for the same land resources to produce food and fodder, respectively. Thus, only 4% of the nation's total cultivable area is used for growing farm fodder. Current shortages in the nation include 44% of concentrate feed ingredients, 10.5% of dry crop leftovers, and 35.6% of green fodder. It is exceedingly difficult to increase the amount of land that is used for fodder agriculture. The cropping system with fodder crops offers a potential solution to the fodder issue since it makes better use of the available resources.
The agricultural residue mostly paddy residue is primarily regarded as a waste owing to its minimum utilization and discarding relating problems. Indian agriculture is progressively succeeding, more emphasizes is provided on the crop yield and productivity. But in existing situation, the management of bulk amount of post-harvest agricultural residue is cumbersome and onerous task and requires more momentum for its effective incorporation and utilization. With these implications, the farmers frequently compelled to opt for appropriate option of burning residues inopen farm field for getting good riddance from large quantity of paddy straw. To discourse these concerns, the in-situ post-harvest residue management machinery can prove to be a feasible alternative which not only provides judicious paddy straw management but also can restricts open field burning. These machineries are either based on the in-field retention or incorporation of crop residues. Recently developed machines viz., Happy seeder, Super seeder, Mulcher etc. plays an indispensable role in replenishing soil quality and reducing environmental pollution calumniating from stubble burning. These technologies supports in modifying soil physical properties, improving soil organic content and edaphic factors, provides economy to farmers, saving energy and consequently eradicating indiscriminate residue burning. The paper reviews the transformation and evolution in functional design and development of the paddy straw management machineries. It focuses on the previous developed technologies in the field straw management and its associated problems and issues
This research paper presents field evaluation of a tractor-operated pneumatic planter for maize crop planting, for enhancing agricultural productivity. Maize, a vital staple crop globally, demands efficient and accurate planting methods to meet growing demands and ensure food security. The study focuses on assessing the technical specifications and seed metering mechanism of the pneumatic planter, utilizing air suction for precise seed distribution. Laboratory evaluations revealed that the pneumatic planter achieved consistent and accurate seed picking for 20 cm (mean = 214 seeds) and 25 cm (mean = 166 seeds) plant spacings, with minimal variation (CV = 1.69% and 6.22%, respectively). Field trials demonstrated that the planter's field efficiency ranged from 75.83% to 88.33%, while mean seed spacing varied from 19.1 mm to 25.8 mm, depending on speed and plant spacing conditions. The results indicate that the pneumatic planter provides uniform and precise seed placement, with low miss and multiple indices, and consistently high-quality feed indices. These findings support the advancement of agricultural technology and underscore the significance of modern machinery in meeting the increasing demands for maize production while ensuring efficient and precise planting practices for enhanced crop yields and resource optimization.
A dam is a construction designed to retain surface water, raising its level to ensure its availability for various needs. It serves multiple purposes, such as supplying water for irrigation, domestic and industrial use, aquaculture, and navigation. Additionally, dams effectively mitigate the risk of downstream flooding by securely containing excess water behind their walls, preventing potential destruction to lives, infrastructure, the environment, and the surrounding landscape. The present aim is to prepare a 2D model to carry out a dam breach analysis for overtopping failure of the Jamrani dam. The goal is to generate flood depth, velocity and breach outflow at various locations such as Kathgodam, Haldwani, Lalkuan and Kichha and generate an inundation map. To accomplish this objective, the dam breach model is developed using HEC-RAS software and RAS Mapper is utilized to produce a flood inundation map. To simulate the most extreme scenario, the unsteady flow condition incorporates the use of the probable maximum flood (PMF). Further, the flood wave is routed using the diffusion wave equation. The maximum breach flow produced at the locations downstream of the dam is 66283.22 m3 /s and the maximum area inundated is 464 km2 for overtopping failure. Ultimately, this study aims to assist relevant authorities in formulating an emergency response plan and implementing effective measures to mitigate the impact of flooding.
As Indian agriculture is mostly rainfed, making provision for the irrigation is really a matter of great concern for the policy makers of India. Water is a scarce resource and not available in plenty, focus on 'more crop per drop of water' emphasises the significance of improving water use efficiency. Despite lots of investment in making provisions of irrigation water for the farmers, the situation in terms of productivity and production efficiency has not changed much. To address this challenge, the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) was started in 2015 with the goal of making adequate provision of water for irrigation and achieving convergence of investments in the irrigation sector at the field level. The present study was undertaken to find out the attitude of PMKSY beneficiaries and the identify the constraints faced by them. The study was conducted in Dehradun district of Garhwal division of Uttarakhand which was selected purposively as it has the highest number of PMKSY beneficiaries. Total Four villages were selected randomly from two blocks. The study sample included 122 beneficiary farmers selected by using Probability Proportionate to Size (PPS) method. The study findings revealed that 59.01 per cent of beneficiary farmers showed favourable attitude towards PMKSY. Further, major infrastructural constraints faced by beneficiary farmers were unavailability of spare parts, lack of adequate information, poor quality of pipes, micro-tubes and other materials and poor after-sales services. Financial constraints were 'requiring high and frequent maintenance, difficult and time taking subsidy disbursement, poor subsidy and favouritism shown by government officials' and geographical constraints were 'unavailability of clean water and fragmented land holding'.
Newsletters have become an important tool for information dissemination, especially for targeted audience as it communicates the relevant, reliable and appropriate information on a specific topic to the captive audience. The present study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of participatory Newsletter on Honey production in a purposively selected block in Nainital district of Uttarakhand. The study locale has been the current hotspot for promotion of honey production in Uttarakhand. Following experimental research design, a Newsletter was developed using participatory methodology; and it was shared with the selected respondents (honey producers). The study sample included 75 Beekeepers selected purposively (as they were participating in the government supported programme promotions on honeybee promotions) from one village in Bhimtal block of Nainital district). Following experimental design, the effectiveness of participatory newsletter was measured in terms of knowledge gain by using pre- and post-test methods. The data was collected by using structured interview schedule. The study findings revealed that there was significant difference in the knowledge gained by the respondents as a result of exposure to the Newsletter. Further, a large majority of the respondents were 'most satisfied' with various features of the Newsletter such as size, design, content, accuracy, readability utility and accuracy of the information contained in the Newsletter. These findings would be useful for researchers and policy makers for strengthening extension and advisory services for the promotion of honey production in the state by using Newsletters as an instrument of information dissemination and communication.
A balanced diet and the consumption of quality food can contribute to sustain the physical well-being and mental stability of individual. Hemoglobin is a human body protein present in erythrocytes. The amount of hemoglobin less than normal level is called anemia. Village and sample of 40 farm women were selected randomly for the assessment. Socioeconomic data and eating habits were obtained from interview. The hemoglobin level was measured by clinical laboratory testing of blood samples of the respondents. Nearly half of the respondents were young age group (47.50%, can read and write (30.0%), having nuclear family (52.50%), medium size family (50.0%), mixed type of house (60.0%), agriculture as main family occupation (100.0%), monthly family income range between Rs.5001-10000/-(52.50%), bamboo and clay made structure for grain storage (90.0%) and rice/wheat consumption pattern (100.00%). More than half of the respondents (57.50%) having low hemoglobin concentration and having non-vegetarian food habit (90.0%) and more than half of respondents (52.50%) of non- vegetarian were having low hemoglobin concentration